ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 123–124. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2012.
Original Russian Text © J. Buschbom, Yu.A. Yanbaev, B. Degen, A.A. Gabitova, 2012, published in Genetika, 2012, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 135–137.
The species at the range borders, existing in
extreme environment, are sensitive to gene pool ero
sion, because of small population number and consid
erable susceptibility to gene drift, and inbreeding .
The possibility to oppose this unfavorable process is
determined by the ability to maintain the optimal level
of intraspecific genetic diversity . In these condi
tions, effective gene flow is one of the key factors .
The range of pollen dispersal, which provides gene
migration between the tree stands, was examined in
many studies . However, the present data on genet
ically realized pollen transfer, especially over long dis
tances, are scarce.
The aim of the present study was to analyze tempo
ral dynamics of genetic diversity in small population of
pedunculate oak. This population is geographically
isolated from the species range and used as a model
object for analysis of the gene flow effectiveness over
relatively long distances.
The study was performed using small stand of
pedunculate oak from the steppe Transural, Baymak
sky raion, Republic of Bashkortostan. By the name of
the neighboring settlement, the stand was namedArk
aim. It consisted of seven trees of reproductive age,
and was located at least 80 km eastwards from the main
border of the species range.
Population genetic diversity was evaluated using
microsatellite loci. DNA was extracted according to
the protocol described in  from the embryos of all
acorns fund. The acorns were grouped in the samples
GA (gathered from the trees) and BA (groundmum
mified seeds of the previous year). Preparation of plant
material to laboratory trials and conditions of PCR
reaction were described earlier . Genotyping was
performed with the recommended in the present study
sets of nine amplified microsatellite primers
. Amplified fragments were purified with the
use of 4 M LiCl. Products of PCR reaction in a volume
l were mixed with 8
l buffer containing 0.25
of 550bp standard and placed into MegaBACE auto
mated sequencer (GE Healthcare, United States) for
separation and identification of amplified fragments.
The fragments were analyzed using the FRAGMENT
PROFILER 1.2 software program.
The level of sample genetic diversity was described
using such parameters as the number of alleles per locus
), observed (
) and expected (
and coefficient of inbreeding (
). The differences
between observed and expected genotype frequencies
were evaluated according to Hardy–Weinberg rule, and
the excess or deficit of heterozygotes was tested. The
calculations were performed using the ARLEQUIN
3.11  and BOTTLENECK  programs.
The levels of genetic diversity observed were con
sidered as high, taking into consideration extremely
low number of maternal plants in the stands, and geo
graphic isolation of the stands. The number of alleles
per locus distinguished in seven individuals tested
constituted from two to nine. At most of the loci the
differences between the observed and expected geno
type frequencies were found to be statistically insignif
icant. However, in individual cases, due to excess of
heterozygotes (three loci for GA sample and five loci,
for BA sample), the differences were statistically sig
nificant. It was demonstrated that in BA sample the
number of alleles per locus was
, and observed heterozygos
. The data obtained for the acorns of
Temporal Dynamics of Allelic Diversity in Isolated Population
of Pedunculate Oak
, Yu. A. Yanbaev
, B. Degen
, and A. A. Gabitova
Institute of Forest Genetics, Johann Heinrich von Thüngen Institute, German Ministry of Food, Agriculture,
and Consumer Protection, Gröhansdorf, D 22927 Germany
Bashkir State Agrarian University, Ufa, 450001 Bashkortostan, Russia
Received May 10, 2011
—Using nine microsatellite loci, genetic diversity of small geographically isolated population of
L. (Fragaceae) was examined. The population was located outside of the spe
cies range in Bashkir Transuralia. Considerable temporal dynamics of allelic diversity, explained in terms of
different effectiveness of gene flow in different years, was demonstrated.