Tempo and mode of ERV-K evolution in human and chimpanzee genomes

Tempo and mode of ERV-K evolution in human and chimpanzee genomes Several families of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) exist in copious numbers in the genomes of primate species. Therefore, we undertook a systematic search for endogenous retrovirus sequences from the ERV-K family, comparing across both human ( Homo sapiens ) and chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) genomes. Using conserved motifs of the ERV-K as query we identified and characterized 76 complete ERV-K elements, 54 in human (HERV-K), 34 of which were described previously, and 21 in the chimpanzee (CERV-K). Phylogenetic analysis using coding regions and LTRs showed the existence of two main branches. Group I was the most heterogeneous and had an average integration time of 18.3 MYBP (million years before present), using rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 × 10 −9 s/s/y (substitution per site per year). Group O/N integrated around 19.4 MYBP and nested Group N integrated about 14 MYBP. We found evidence for strong positive selection on the gag , pol and env coding regions and for A/T hypermutation. Our data suggest that the endogenous elements were possibly involved in chromosomal rearrangements and retained a great deal of information from their active stage, most likely as a consequence of host interactions. This study also contributes to the annotation effort of both human and chimpanzee genomes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Virology Springer Journals

Tempo and mode of ERV-K evolution in human and chimpanzee genomes

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Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2006 by Springer-Verlag
Subject
Biomedicine; Medical Microbiology; Virology; Infectious Diseases
ISSN
0304-8608
eISSN
1432-8798
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00705-006-0792-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Several families of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) exist in copious numbers in the genomes of primate species. Therefore, we undertook a systematic search for endogenous retrovirus sequences from the ERV-K family, comparing across both human ( Homo sapiens ) and chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) genomes. Using conserved motifs of the ERV-K as query we identified and characterized 76 complete ERV-K elements, 54 in human (HERV-K), 34 of which were described previously, and 21 in the chimpanzee (CERV-K). Phylogenetic analysis using coding regions and LTRs showed the existence of two main branches. Group I was the most heterogeneous and had an average integration time of 18.3 MYBP (million years before present), using rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 × 10 −9 s/s/y (substitution per site per year). Group O/N integrated around 19.4 MYBP and nested Group N integrated about 14 MYBP. We found evidence for strong positive selection on the gag , pol and env coding regions and for A/T hypermutation. Our data suggest that the endogenous elements were possibly involved in chromosomal rearrangements and retained a great deal of information from their active stage, most likely as a consequence of host interactions. This study also contributes to the annotation effort of both human and chimpanzee genomes.

Journal

Archives of VirologySpringer Journals

Published: Nov 1, 2006

References

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