This paper reports the first application of nonlinear excitation regime two-line atomic fluorescence imaging (NTLAF) of indium to measure temperature in turbulent flames of dilute sprays. Indium chloride is dissolved in acetone fuel which is atomised with an ultrasonic nebuliser and supplied with carrier air into a standard piloted burner. It is found that the indium fluorescence signal is not affected by scattering from the droplets or fuel vapour and that no changes to the optical arrangement used with gaseous flames were required. Notwithstanding the lower temperature thresholds of 800 K imposed by the population of excitation species for the NTLAF method and of 1,200 K imposed by the mechanism of releasing gas-phase indium from its salt, the comparisons of conditional and pseudo-unconditional means with thermocouple measurements performed in a range of turbulent spray flames are quite favourable. The NTLAF signal quality deteriorates on the jet centreline at upstream locations and on the lean side of the flame, the former being largely due to insufficient conversion of indium chloride to indium atoms and the latter potentially due to indium oxidation. Nevertheless, the signal-to-noise ratios obtained in the reaction zone regions are good and the results reveal the expected temperature trends in the turbulent spray flames tested here. Further developments are necessary to resolve the mechanism of indium formation and to broaden the temperature range.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 28, 2014
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