TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS IN THE WORKING SPACE
OF A MODERN ELECTRIC-ARC STEELMAKING FURNACE
G. V. Voronov,
M. V. Antropov,
O. V. Porokh,
I. V. Glukhov,
and V. A. Gol’tsev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 40 – 42, May, 2015.
Original article submitted December 3, 2014.
The temperature distribution in the working space of an electric-arc steelmaking furnace built by the company
“Danieli” and equipped with radially positioned fuel-burning devices is analyzed. It is concluded that the tem
perature field is quite nonuniform, and the suggestion is made to reposition the gas-oxygen burners into a tan
gential configuration. Computer modeling is used to determine the temperature distribution in the furnace’s
working space for radially and tangentially arranged burners.
Keywords: electric-arc steelmaking furnace (EAF), temperature, fuel-burning devices (FBDs), temperature
According to information from the company “Siemens
VAI,” the furnaces of its “Ultimate” series represent the state
of the art from the standpoint of maximizing productivity.
There are several important differences between these units
and other furnaces: an increase in the volume of the working
space thanks to a change in the height of the walls; sin
gle-bucket charging; the use of gas-oxygen and combination
lances to burn CO in the outgoing gases and the use of injec
tors to introduce powdered carbon-bearing materials .
When judged on the basis of the use of different types of en
ergy carriers, the modern electric-arc steelmaking furnace
(EAF) should be regarded as a sophisticated high-tempera
ture unit that jointly uses electric power, gaseous fuel, and an
oxidizing agent based on the same principle as reverberatory
steelmaking furnaces and solid fuel (coke) based
on the same principle as carburetors . The fact
that EAFs employ gas-oxygen burners, oxygen
lances, and powder injectors has a significant ef
fect on the thermal state of the furnace’s working
In our view, many of the technical solutions
that have been developed (such as by the company
“Danieli”) and involve the installation of special
energy-delivering devices on the walls and in the
lower part of the furnace were designed exclusively to in-
crease the furnace’s productivity. However, these pieces of
equipment do not make the fullest possible use of the avail-
able heat energy. The conditions that exist do not provide for
additional distributed heat transfer to the materials of the
cold charge within the zones in which there is an inadequate
supply of heat.
Convective heat transfer plays the main role in the opera
tion of fuel-oxygen burners, since gas-oxygen flames have a
low emissivity and the lightweight charge is characterized by
a low initial temperature and a developed surface that is
available for heat exchange with the combustion products.
Convective heat transfer is functionally dependent on the ve
locity and kinematic viscosity of the combustion products
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 3, September, 2015
1083-4877/15/05603-0257 © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Trajectory of the gas flows in the working space: a) for the variant from the
“Danieli” company; b ) for the recommended FBD arrangement.