The measurement of the sizes and the velocities of droplets relies upon widespread and well-established techniques, but characterizing their temperature and their composition remains challenging. The lack of standard methods is particularly detrimental, given the importance of these parameters for validating models and numerical simulations of many spray processes. Heat and mass transfers are dominant aspects in applications such as spray combustion in IC engines, spray cooling, spray drying, wet scrubbers in which liquid sprays capture gas pollutants and also the preparation of nanoparticles via spray route. This paper provides a review of the main techniques available to optically measure the temperature and chemical compositions of single droplets and sprays. Most of these techniques are based on phenomena related to light interaction with matter. Photoluminescence processes like fluorescence and phosphorescence have temperature and composition dependences which can be exploited, while other methods rely on light scattering by the droplets. In particular, the angular position of the rainbow is very sensitive to the refractive index and then to both the temperature and composition. Less widely used diagnostic methods include Raman scattering, thermochromic liquid crystals, thermographic phosphors, infrared thermography, morphology-dependent resonances and their subsequent effects on the stimulated emission of dye molecules. In this review, the emphasis is mainly placed on two groups of techniques—methods based on laser-induced fluorescence and those based on light scattering—but details about alternative methods will be also provided. The potential of combining fluorescence-based techniques or rainbow refractometry with a droplet sizing measurement technique to derive temperature and composition per size class will be also discussed.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 10, 2013
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
ok to continue