ISSN 1070-4280, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 7, pp. 1218–1224. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text © M.B. Generalov 2007, published in Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost, 2007, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 68–78.
Technology of Plastic Industrial Explosives
M. B. Generalov
Received February 6, 2007
TECHNOLOGY OF ORGANIC
AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES
PLASTIC COMPOSITE EXPLOSIVES
(OR PLASTIC EXPLOSIVES)
These explosives are a cross-linked polymer com-
position with polymer material as a continuous binding
phase (matrix). In the polymer matrix a solid disperse
mixture of explosives and specific additives is distrib-
uted like a filler.
Preparing the binding compounds consists in the
following. As a binder in the polymer compositions
usually are used various resins, which simultaneously
are combustible components. A resin in viscous-
flowing state is mixed with additives: plasticizers, vul-
canizer, catalyst, dye and other special additives. The
use of special additives is connected with the necessity
of admitting required physico-mechanical properties to
Preparation of friable substances is performed
alongside the traditional technology considered earlier
for the friable compositions of industrial explosives.
For preparation of explosive mass, a mixture of
brisant explosive with additives is mixed with liquid
binder in a mixer with periodical loading (blade, an-
chor or planetary type) or continuously operating
(auger, two-screw type, two-blade type, rolls, etc.).
Mechanical properties of the filled polymer explosives
in a great extent depend on the size, distribution on
size of the filler particles, their shape, homogeneity in
distribution in the polymer matrix, degree of orienta-
tion (for anisotropic fillers) and interface properties.
Content of filler in plastic explosives can vary in a
wide range. In high-filled compositions it sometimes is
over the polymer content. For example, the explosive
“Hexoplast GP-87K” contains, %: hexogen 82.5, butyl
rubber 13, fluoroplast 1.5, zinc white pigment 3, leci-
thin 0.1 .
The filled polymer explosive material in a general
case can be solid amorphous (with partial crystalliza-
tion) or in glass-like state, in solid highly elastic state,
or in liquid viscous-flow state. The physical state of
explosive material, partial or full bulk crystallinity and
depending on it complex of its mechanical properties
defines character of its application. The plastic explo-
sive which are glass-like at ambient temperature or the
explosives partially or fully crystalline are as a rule
rigid materials and are known as plastics or plastids.
Plastic explosives in high-elastic state are known
as elastomers or elastids, and posses properties of gum.
The main advantage of the viscous-flow state polymer
compositions is ability of most this type compositions
to be molded and thus converted into a commercial
mechanically shaped product.
The elastid charges are shaped as cords, tapes,
plates by means of pressing, extrusion, rolling, pres-
sure-die casting and by other methods.
Fig. 1 shows technological scheme of an installa-
tion for continuous producing plastic explosives .