TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING FLOWS OF STEEL
AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFRACTORY STRUCTURES
FOR THE TUNDISH OF A FOUR-STRAND CONTINUOUS CASTER
K. N. Vdovin,
Viktor V. Tochilkin,
and Vasilii V. Tochilkin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.2,pp.3–5,February, 2016.
Original article submitted October 29, 2015.
This article examines the configuration of elements of the chambers of a tundish on a four-strand continuous
caster and aspects of organizing the movement of the flows of steel within the chambers. It is shown that new
configurations and structural elements developed for the system that distributes the flows have a significant
effect on their parameters and the removal of nonmetallic inclusions. The equipment upgrade ensures efficient
formation of the flows and creates the conditions necessary to improve the quality of the cast steel.
Keywords: continuous caster, tundish, flows of metal, modeling.
The tundish of continuous casters controls the flow of
metal into the mold and helps refine it as well [1, 2]. Im-
proving the elements of the tundish can improve the quality
of the steel cast on a continuous caster. Figure 1 shows the
tundish of a four-strand caster.
The metal that enters the tundish contains nonmetallic in-
clusions (NIs), which over time rise to the surface of the melt
. Coarse NIs >20 mm are removed with the use of metal
receivers (M) and specially designed baffles and sills [4, 5].
These devices vary in shape, size, and their location in the
tundish. Their installation in a tundish divides it into an in
take chamber and four discharge chambers.
The metal flows from the steel-pouring ladle into the in
take chamber through a special tube and leaves the tundish
from the discharge chambers. An analysis of the existing
configuration of a four-strand continuous caster established
– the intake chamber of the tundish is comprised of a
metal receiver without discharge openings and a row of up
– the discharge chambers are formed by sills;
– mathematical modeling established that fast-rising
vertical flows are formed in the intake chamber and beyond
the sills in the discharge chambers. It was found that the ve
locity of these flows is greater than the allowable maximum
(0.16 m/sec) , which leads to intensive entrainment of NIs
by the molten metal and exposure of its surface.
The mathematical model describes the motion of liquid
metal [2, 6] in a tundish. It contains the following equations
as its components: the Navier-Stokes equations, the flow
continuity equation, the convective diffusion equation. The
geometry of the model depends on the configuration of the
tundish and the location of equipment in its internal cavity of
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 1, May, 2016
1083-4877/16/05701-0006 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk Russia.
Fig. 1. Configuration of the tundish of a four-strand continuous
caster: 1 ) tundish; 2 ) steel-pouring ladle; 3 ) downtube; 4 ) stopper;
5 ) stopper mechanism; 6 ) discharge chambers of the tundish; 7 )
discharge-chamber sill; 8 ) intake chamber of the tundish; 9 ) bottom
metal receiver; 10 ) sills in the intake chamber.