TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HEAT RESISTANCE
IN CARBON-CERAMIC COMPOSITE REFRACTORIES
N. M. Chernenko,
N. Yu. Beilina,
and A. I. Sokolov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 132 – 135, April, 2009.
Original article submitted April 8, 2008.
A technology has been developed for making carbon-ceramic composite refractories by combining carbon fi
bers as reinforcing component with a mixture matrix, which allows one to make refractory components of var
ious sizes and geometry, including thin-walled large constructions. The heat resistance of these composite
refractories increases with the bulk silicization during ceramic production on a carbon-carbon substrate. The
degree of silicization is determined by the volume of the open microporosity of transport type, which is
formed by pyrolysis of a polymer coke-forming matrix in the initial carbon plastic. The transport micropores
are produced by a modification of the phenol-formaldehyde resin additive treatment, which does not give rise
to coke on pyrolysis. As a result, the content of open pores in the carbon framework attains 55%, which en
ables one to make a silicized composite refractory of density up to 2.7 g/cm
with a compressive strength of
250 – 300 MPa, bending strength 120 – 140, and tensile strength 60 – 80 MPa, elastic modulus 120 – 140 GPa,
linear expansion coefficient 3.5 ´ 10
– 4.5 ´ 10
, and thermal conductivity 6 – 8 W/(m × K). These
refractories are widely used in various branches of industry.
Keywords: strong heat-resisting refractory materials, carbon-ceramic composite refractories, technology, car-
bon fibers, mixed matrices, polymer coke-forming matrix, carbonization, graphitization, carbidization, pre-
treatment, solidification, irradiation, modification.
High-temperature plant and engines require strong
heat-resisting refractory materials, which should withstand
multicycle thermomechanical loading at up to 1700°C under
oxidizing conditions and in the presence of ionizing radia
tions with minimal permissible mass loss without reduction
in the strength. Stable viability under such conditions is
shown by carbon-ceramic composite refractories, and as
pects of the technology of making them are dealt with here.
Carbon-ceramic refractories are made by the bulk mixing
of carbon fibers as reinforcing component with a mixture
matrix containing carbon in transitional forms dispersed in
silicon carbide. The technology is based on thermochemical
transformations of the polymeric coke-forming matrix of
carbon-plastic material based on phenol-formaldehyde resin
(PFR) in a carbon matrix for use in carbonization (firing) and
graphitization with high-temperature adjustable heating and
carbidization of the resulting carbon-carbon matrix. Figure 1
shows the scheme for making these refractory carbon-ce
Experiment indicates that the properties of the refractory
components begin to be formed in the preparation of the car
bon-fiber material, which is purposively chosen as a rein
forcing filler, and involves the development of a comprehen
sive coke-forming bonding agent.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 2, 2009
1083-4877/09/5002-0149 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Graphite Research Institute Company, Moscow, Russia.
Fig. 1. Block diagram for the manufacture of components from carbon-ceramic refractory material.