One of the unsteady features of shallow water free surface waves over a bump is the bulge–scar pattern of the free surface deformation. An imaging technique is developed to measure the duration, displacement and size of the bulge–scar pattern from the bump top to the primary wave crest. A unique configuration of particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity distribution under the visualized free surface bulge at the primary wave trough. Test results indicate that the bulge–scar pattern of the free surface deformation is related to a stream-wise vortex pair in the secondary flow over the bump. The new measurement techniques may work together with the conventional measurement techniques to obtain a complete database for the shallow water free surface instability over the bump.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 16, 2014
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