Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic value of signal intensity (SI)-selected volumetry findings in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a potential biomarker for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods Forty consecutive patients with pCR after preoperative CRT were compared with 80 age- and sex-matched non-pCR patients in a case-control study. SI-selected tumor volume was measured on post-CRT T2-weighted MRI, which included voxels of the treated tumor exceeding the SI (obturator internus muscle SI + [ischiorectal fossa fat SI – obturator internus muscle SI] × 0.2). Three blinded readers independently rated five-point pCR confidence scores and compared the diagnostic outcome with SI-selected volumetry findings. The SI-selected volumetry protocol was validated in 30 additional rectal cancer patients. Results The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SI-selected volumetry for pCR prediction was 0.831, with an optimal cutoff value of 649.6 mm (sensitivity 0.850, specificity 0.725). The AUC of the SI- selected tumor volume was significantly greater than the pooled AUC of readers (0.707, p < 0.001). At this cutoff, the validation trial yielded an accuracy of 0.87. Conclusion SI-selected volumetry in post-CRT T2-weighted MRI can help predict pCR after preoperative CRT
European Radiology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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