SYSTEM DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR ULTRASONIC CASTING PLANT
FOR A HIGHLY REFRACTORY OXIDE CERAMIC
S. A. Shakhov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 54 – 57, November, 2008.
Original article submitted April 25, 2008.
Methodological principles are formulated for selecting the scheme and the design parameters for the acoustic
system for ultrasonic casting of a highly refractory ceramic. Relationships are established for optimizing the
position of the waveguide in relation to the parameters of the acoustic processing and the volume of the simul
taneously processed material. The results have been used in setting up an ultrasonic extrusion system.
Extending research on ultrasonic casting gives rise to
specifications for new designs of casting machines and sci-
entifically sound methods of calculating their parameters.
The best organization of casting for thermoplastic materials
with the use of ultrasound is based on choosing the best pa-
rameters and schemes for the acoustic processing, which ulti-
mately determines the design of the acoustic system. A com-
parison of existing designs reveals the general trends in the
parameters of acoustic systems in casting devices.
1. The main object of analysis in selecting ultrasonic
schemes and parameters is not the process itself but instead
the mechanism. More detail over the general mechanism has
led to division into individual stages, and one can determine
more precisely the limiting link in the mechanism and
choose the most effective intensifying action corresponding
to that link.
2. The performance in intensifying the process is gov
erned by the choice and optimization of the ultrasonic pa
rameters. The result of the intensification is related to the fol
lowing features occurring in ultrasonic treatment:
– it is necessary for a rate of transformation of the po
tential energy in the system to exceed the rate of accumula
– there is an extremely short time for the energy trans
formation, since the useful power deposited in the form of a
pulse is inversely proportional to the transformation time and
directly proportional to the energy accumulated in that time;
– energy deposition in pulse form occurs in a large number
of small local zones uniformly distributed in the working
3. The system may show several physicochemical ef
fects, which usually interact; the more complicated the struc-
ture of the material, the larger the number of the results that
may arise. No matter what the method used to implement the
intensification with ultrasound, it is possible to produce an
improvement by selecting and combining various actions on
the material, and by optimization and management of the ul-
trasonic parameters one obtains various forms of result,
which largely serve to intensify the conversion.
However, the analysis shows that the values of some pa-
rameters are adopted in part by the designer on the basis of
analogies, and also advertisements and intuitive consider
ations. When one is setting up casting machines, the precise
values of the parameters must be selected in relation to the
proposed range of components to be made, which requires a
study of the casting with a complete set of properties of the
slip. Then the methodological basis for choosing the best pa
rameters is a parametric analysis based on the systems ap
proach . It reveals all the parameters governing the target
value in the casting machine and all the components in the
subsystems, together with the relationship between them and
the significance of them. During that analysis, one formu
lates in detail the target value of the object and the specifica
tions for it. The tasks of parametric analysis include estab
lishing the subsystems forming the object. The structure of
the objects is identified. Ceramic components come in a vari
ety of forms and sizes, so the task should be handled primar
ily at the level of the device structure or general scheme. The
most effective ways of improving the essential scheme
should be based on transformation methods that increase the
effectiveness of the combined action, which exceeds that of
the summary action, i.e., on the basis of a synergetic ap
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 49, No. 6, 2008
1083-4877/08/4906-0475 © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
FGUP VPO NGAVT, Novosibirsk, Russia.