Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 7, pp. 1188−1194.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © Z.G. Asadov, R.A. Ragimov, G.A. Akhmedova, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 7, pp. 1116−1122.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Synthesis, Physicochemical Characteristics and Properties
of Oligomeric Surfactants Based on Pentaerythritol
and Propylene Oxide
Z. G. Asadov, R. A. Ragimov, and G. A. Akhmedova
Institute of Petrochemical Processes, National Academy of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan
Received March 9, 2010
Abstract—We carried out oxypropylation of pentaerythritol with propylene oxide at different molar ratios of
reagents under the action of alkali (NaOH) catalyst. The most important physical and chemical characteristics
of the obtained esters were determined and their properties as surfactants were studied. Based on these data we
calculated colloid-chemical and thermodynamic parameters of micellization and adsorption.
The value of surfactants (SA) today can scarcely be
overestimated [1–4]. These substances are ﬁ nding new
applications. One such area is the use of surfactants
in the storage of oil and oil products. It is known that
during their storage there are signiﬁ cant losses due to
evaporation from reservoirs. Irrecoverable losses lead to
a deterioration in the quality of oil products and adversely
affect the environment and human health. Such losses can
be prevented by different ways . One of these ways is
colloid-chemical. This method is mainly based on coating
oil and oil products by ﬁ lm-forming substance.
A nonionic SA, that possesses interesting properties,
can be noted among the various types of SA [6–9].
Preparation and study of new nonionic surfactant
(NSA) continues to be the focus of professionals
because of their high efﬁ ciency. Nonionic surfactants,
synthesized on the basis of propylene oxide (PO), which
is a large-capacity product of petrochemical industry in
Russia, Azerbaijan and other countries, are preferred
because of the relatively low cost and availability of raw
It was determined  that one of the factors inﬂ u-
encing on the evaporation inhibition, is the number of
OH groups in oxypropyl ethers of glycerol and ethyl-
ene glycol. To this end, it was interesting to synthesize
oxypropyl ethers of pentaerythritol (PE) and to examine
their ability to inhibit the evaporation of gasoline.
PE, PO, and sodium hydroxide (39% by weight of
aqueous solution) were products of Merck, Sumgait
Manufacture of Organic Synthesis (Azerbaijan), and
Sumgait Manufacture of SA; gasoline was produced by
Baku Manufacture “Azerneftyanadzhag” (Azerbaijan)
of grade A-92.
The IR spectra were recorded using an instrument
Specord M-80 (Germany), UV spectra, on a spectrom-
eter Specord M-40 (Germany). Surface tension σ of
oxypropyl ethers at the water–air boundary were deter-
mined by counting drops . The water was used in the
form of double-distilled water.
Oxypropylation of PE was performed in a stainless
steel autoclave in nitrogen at 140–60°C and for 15 h. As a
catalyst was used NaOH (3 mol% of PE). Unreacted PO
was removed from the ﬁ nal reaction mixture by heating
the product at a moderate temperature (50–60°C) until
the formation of mixture of the permanent composition.
Then by gravimetric method degrees of PO conversion
and oxypropylation were determined.
Experiments to determine the level of inhibition efﬁ -
ciency of the evaporation of gasoline was performed by