Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 278−281.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © Yu.A. Savel’ev, G.B. Kunshina, O.G. Gromov, E.I. Gorokhova, E.P. Lokshin, V.T. Kalinnikov, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 299−302.
Synthesis of ZnO:Ga Nanosized Powders
by the Combustion Method
Yu. A. Savel’ev
, G. B. Kunshina
, O. G. Gromov
, E. I. Gorokhova
E. P. Lokshin
, and V. T. Kalinnikov
Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Scientiﬁ c Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russia
Vavilov State Optical Institute, All-Russia Research Center, Research and Technological Institute
of Optical Materials Science, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received January 14, 2013
Abstract—The synthesis of ZnO:Ga(0.075 wt%) nanosized powders via combustion reaction at 145°C and
subsequent calcination of the ground combustion product at 500–900°С was studied. Zinc and gallium nitrates
were used as initial substances, and sucrose, as fuel. It was found that Ga
nanoparticles are located on the ZnO
particles and inhibit their growth.
Gallium-doped zinc oxide is used as thin-ﬁ lm material
in scintillators for α-particle detection. In fabrication of
such detectors, of much signiﬁ cance are the following
characteristics of ZnO: transparency in the visible spectral
region, good thermal and mechanical properties, high
density (5.61 g cm
), and high radiation resistance. The
electronic conductivity of ZnO is improved by doping
with trivalent cations (Ga
). Klingshirn et al.
found  that ZnO:Ga and ZnO:In have a short de-exci-
tation time and a high light yield and, thereby, possess the
highest quality (the ratio of the light yield to the falloff
time) among the known phosphors.
For X-ray and gamma-ray detection purposes, zinc
oxide-based optical ceramics is prepared by hot pressing
of high-purity ZnO nanopowders with controlled phase
composition and particle size and morphology . For
implementation of this procedure, it is essential that ZnO
nanopowders be prepared as spherical particles with size
no larger than 150 nm, characterized by homogeneous
distribution of the dopant.
Previously , we synthesized ZnО powders with
homogeneously distributed gallium dopant (0.02–0.08
wt%) by precipitation-pyrolysis with Zn
hydroxide carbonate precursor. According to the scanning
electron microscopic data, the resulting particles were
produced as spheroid agglomerates 3–3.5 μm in diameter,
formed from 40–80-nm crystallites.
Neal et al.  synthesized ZnO:Ga(0.55–0.008 wt%)
powders by combustion of a solution of mixed zinc and
gallium nitrates in glycine, followed by calcination of
the intermediate product at 500°C in order to remove the
residual carbon and obtain a single-phase product. The
end product was composed of agglomerates having size
of up to 1 μm, formed by small equiaxed crystals with the
average size of 50 nm. Due to strong particle agglomera-
tion, milling of the resulting product is needed.
Here, we studied the synthesis of ZnO:Ga nanosized
powders by the combustion route from solid-phase initial
substances using sucrose as the fuel.
As initial substances we used analytically pure grade
O, ultrapure grade 14-3 Ga(NO
and analytically pure grade sucrose. The speciﬁ c surface
of the zinc oxide powders synthesized was mea-