Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 7, pp. 1314−1317.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
T.N. Poyarkova, G.V. Kudrina, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 7, pp. 1208−1211.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Synthesis of Surfactants from Sunﬂ ower
Oil Production Wastes
T. N. Poyarkova
and G. V. Kudrina
Voronezh State University, Voronezh, Russia
Voronezh State Academy of Technology, Voronezh, Russia
Received December 1, 2009
Abstract—Adsorption characteristics of surfactants prepared from sunﬂ ower oil production wastes were evaluated.
The polymerization kinetics in preparation of polystyrene latexes using the synthesized emulsiﬁ ers was studied.
Development of low-waste processes and mitigation
of the environmental pollution are urgent problems.
Production of vegetable oils is a large-tonnage process
and involves formation of large amounts of wastes.
Natural vegetable oils contain a number of substances
that reduce their nutritive and physiological value and
complicate the subsequent processing. To optimize the
process and improve the nutritive quality, vegetable oils
are subjected to various puriﬁ cation processes, including
reﬁ ning. The main steps of vegetable oil reﬁ ning are
hydration and neutralization.
Hydration is performed with solutions of salts,
acids, or alkalis at 45–65°C with the aim to recover
phospholipids and other hydrophilic substances from
oils to maximum possible extent. In so doing, the
phospholipid emulsion (hydration residue) is formed as
production waste. Its composition varies depending on
the agent used and hydration procedure. The hydration
residue contains 55–70% water, 15–30% phospholipids,
and 15–20% oil. Low content of phospholipids does not
allow industrial use of the hydration residue. At the same
time, preparation of a product with a higher phospholipid
concentration requires additional operations, which is
economically unproﬁ table [1, 2].
To remove excess free fatty acids from oils, they are
neutralized with alkaline agents (potassium, sodium, or
calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium silicate,
etc.) with the formation of a soap solution (soap stock)
as waste. The soap stock contains fats, fatty acid salts
(soaps), phospholipids, coloring substances, and other
organic and inorganic compounds .
Today soap stock is used in small amounts for
feeding poultry, in soap manufacture, for preparing
cutting ﬂ uids, ingredients for rubber industry, glycerol,
and antifreezes, as additive in production of foamed
latex items, and in polymer technology [4–7].
It is well known that surfactants are necessary
components of formulations for preparing latexes .
Traditional raw materials for preparing surfactants are
natural fats and oils. In the middle of the XX century,
they were displaced by petrochemical products.
However, recently the crude oil market lost stability,
and it became topical for surfactant producers to use
vegetable raw materials (castor, rapeseed, sunﬂ ower,
olive, cotton oils).
This study was aimed to examine the possibility of
processing of soap stock and phospholipid emulsion,
which are wastes from sunﬂ ower oil production, for
preparing emulsiﬁ ers used in latex synthesis.
The investigation objects were soap stock
(Masloprodukt group of companies, Verkhnyaya
Khava village) and phospholipid emulsion from Bunge
oil-extraction plant (Kolodeznaya village, Voronezh
oblast). The qualitative and quantitative compositions of
soap stock and phospholipid emulsion were studied by