ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1986−1996. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © V.V. Vol’khin, D.A. Kazakov, G.V. Leont’eva, Yu.V. Andreeva, E.A. Nosenko, M.Yu. Siluyanova,
2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1739−1750.
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Synthesis of Struvite (MgNH
O) and Its Use
for Sorption of Nickel Ions
V. V. Vol’khin, D. A. Kazakov, G. V. Leont’eva, Yu. V. Andreeva,
E. A. Nosenko, and M. Yu. Siluyanova
Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Komsomolskii pr. 29, Perm, 614990 Russia
Received March 20, 2015
Abstract—The inﬂ uence of the conditions of the struvite synthesis on its ability to form crystals with developed
faces of different forms (hkl) and on the possibility of the subsequent transition to more stable forms was examined.
The correlation between the ζ-potential of the struvite particle surface, struvite crystal size, and tendency to form
agglomerates was demonstrated. The sorption rate in the system consisting of struvite, nickel ions, ammonium
ions, and water can be increased by combining the internal diffusion and recrystallization of the solid interaction
products. The possibility of enhancing the sorption performance by properly choosing the anionic composition
of solutions of nickel salts for the sorption was revealed. The conditions for preparing struvite for its use as agent
for improvement of contaminated soils to immobilize heavy metal ions were substantiated.
O) is the subject of numer-
ous studies because of its importance for natural pro-
cesses, medicine, agriculture, and environment protec-
tion. A special review concerns the use of struvite for
removing phosphorus (PO
) and nitrogen (NH
wastewater and for regenerating phosphorus as renew-
able fertilizer . Struvite is of interest for the technol-
ogy of utilization of cattle-breeding wastes  and re-
processing of leaching solutions formed in the course
of operation of municipal waste dumps . Struvite can
be useful for preventing eutrophication of natural wa-
ter bodies . The deposition of struvite in pipelines,
pumps, and centrifuges is hazardous for their normal op-
eration, and this subject was examined in a special study
. Elucidation of the role of struvite in the formation of
urinary stones is important for medicine .
The use of struvite, however, involves certain prob-
lems, among which the possible contamination of stru-
vite with heavy metal (HM) ions is of particular impor-
tance. Struvite as a product of reprocessing of industrial
and municipal wastewaters can be a high-quality phos-
phorus resource only if it is free of HMs [7, 8]. On the
other hand, interest in struvite as HM sorbent increases.
Natural phosphate minerals are considered for a long
time as agents for the improvement of contaminated
soils to immobilize HMs (Pb, Cu, Zn) . Struvite,
which is a waste from wastewater treatment to remove
ions, appeared to be a very efﬁ cient HM sorbent,
which makes it one of the most promising agents for im-
provement of soils to immobilize HMs. The interaction
of HMs with struvite has been studied poorly. Only the
uptake of the Cu
, and Ni
 ions by struvite was demonstrated, but the inﬂ uence
of the characteristics of struvite itself and of the process
medium on the quantitative characteristics of the sorp-
tion processes has not been examined.
Precipitation of struvite from aqueous solutions
is possible at pH in the interval 6.5–11.5 , but the
majority of procedures use pH 7.5–9.5. An important
parameter of struvite precipitation is the solution
supersaturation. The Mg/P molar ratio is also signiﬁ cant.
It is usually varied in experiments in a wide range, e.g.,
from 1 : 2 to 2 : 1 . The conditions of the struvite
synthesis determine the ζ-potential of the surface of