ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 555−560. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © E.V. Petrova, A.F. Dresvyannikov, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 5, pp. 563−568.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Synthesis of Iron(III) Oxide from Solution
under Exposure to External Electric Field
E. V. Petrova and A. F. Dresvyannikov
Kazan National Research Technological University,
ul. Karla Marksa 10, Kazan, Tatarstan, 420111 Russia
Received May 19, 2014
Abstract—New method for controlling the physicochemical properties and morphology of iron oxide is suggested.
The methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray phase and thermal analysis were used
to study the structure and properties of highly dispersed iron oxides formed under exposure of the reaction mixture
to an external electric ﬁ eld. The effect of synthesis conditions on the formation of structure and morphology of
particles of iron oxide, a compound that ﬁ nds practical application as a pigment or catalyst base, was examined.
Particular importance is presently acquired by a search
for ecologically safe, simple, and reliable methods for
synthesis of highly dispersed materials with a high yield
of the product and particle size smaller than 100 nm [1–4].
The highly dispersed iron oxide ﬁ nds wide application
in solving ecological problems associated with, e.g.,
removal of heavy metal ions from biological objects or
as a pigment in deposition of heat-resistant polymeric
coatings, ceramic components, polishing agents, food
dyes, etc. [4, 5].
The conventional ways to obtain iron oxide are
complicated, include a number of prolonged stages, and
require use of organic solvents and strict control over the
process parameters (temperature, pH, anion composi-
tion of a solution) [4, 6, 7]. Therefore, devising simple
and efﬁ cient methods for obtaining nanosize iron oxide
particles, with the subsequent development of industrial
technologies based on these methods is a topical task.
One of possible approaches to solving this problem
is by development of new methods combining the
conventional chemical deposition and an electrochemical
processing, which will make it possible to perform
processes that either are impossible at all under ordinary
condition or occur exceedingly slowly. An important
advantage of this approach is that the course of the process
can be controlled by varying the solution composition and
electrical mode parameters and high-purity hydroxides
and oxides can be obtained. Varying the size of particles
changes the nature of their interaction by forming various
nanostructures with unique properties and reactivity.
Controlling the electrical parameters of the process
makes it possible to obtain powders whose particles are
characterized by a certain shape, morphology, dispersity,
porosity, narrow range of sizes and constant chemical
composition, which raises their practical value to an even
greater extent [8, 9].
The goal of our study was to develop a method for
obtaining nanosize iron oxide particles under exposure
to an external electric ﬁ eld and to examine the effect of
their synthesis conditions on the size distribution and
Iron oxide samples were obtained by precipitation
from 0.5 M solutions of Fe(II) salts (Table 1), with
a 3.0 M solution of sodium hydroxide as a precipitating
agent. Sample nos. 3 and 4 were additionally treated in
the course of precipitation with a direct electric current
for 30 min in a coaxial diaphragmless electrolyzer in