ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 400−405. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © S.I. Tsyganova, O.Yu. Fetisova, G.N. Bondarenko, E.V. Mazurova, N.V. Chesnokov,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016,
Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 348−353.
AND ION EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Synthesis of Highly Porous Zinc–Carbon Composites
Based on Modiﬁ ed Pine Wood
S. I. Tsyganova*, O. Yu. Fetisova, G. N. Bondarenko, E. V. Mazurova, and N. V. Chesnokov
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Akademgorodok 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Received December 23, 2015
Abstract—Highly porous materials containing zinc oxide were prepared form modiﬁ ed pine wood. The growth
dynamics of zinc oxide microcrystallites in the course of carbonization of pine sawdust mixed with ZnCl
studied. The hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO phase is formed at 400°С and is broken down at approximately 800°С.
The synthesized composite material has a high speciﬁ c surface area, up to 1900 m
. The relationships of the
porous structure formation in the composite in relation to the temperature and subsequent treatment with water
were revealed. Opening of the porous structure of the composite in the course of carbonization of modiﬁ ed pine
sawdust is associated with the formation of crystal-like phases of carbon and ZnO.
The development of new types of porous carbon
materials (PCMs) from cheap natural raw materials is a
topical problem, taking into account increasing volume
of using PCMs as catalytic supports, battery electrodes,
capacitors, gas storage adsorbents, and also in biomedical
engineering [1–5]. Wood is the environmentally
cleanest and cheapest raw material for their production.
On the other hand, softwood is not used to noticeable
extent for commercial production of charcoals, despite
enormous amount of sawdust, especially of that of pine
wood, accumulated at woodworking enterprises. This is
primarily caused by high content of resins, higher than
that in hardwood. The pyrolysis leads to plugging of
wood pores with tars. Dense plugs formed in the process
decrease the porosity of the carbon product. However,
chemical modiﬁ cation of this raw material not only
can reduce the effect of these drawbacks but also can
create conditions for the synthesis of porous composite
materials with special properties.
Zinc chloride is one of effective reagents for chemical
activation of the lignocellulose raw materials. It is
the catalyst of solid-phase pyrolysis and coordination
catalyst of radical polymerization [1, 2]. On the other
hand, nanostructured zinc-containing materials with
high speciﬁ c surface area have enormous prospects for
use in diverse ﬁ elds. For example, materials based on
zinc oxide are used for the production of solar batteries,
optoelectronic devices, transparent electrodes, gas
sensors, and biosensors [6–12]. Highly dispersed ZnO
forms (nanoparticles, rods, ﬁ lms) attracted particular
attention in the past decades [8, 9]. One of possible ﬁ elds
of using these forms is preparation of zinc oxide/carbon
composite materials, which are of interest, in particular,
as biosensors .
This study deals with the preparation of zinc oxide/
carbon porous materials from an environmentally
friendly and cheap raw material, pine sawdust.
Thermochemical transformations of birch wood and
microcrystalline cellulose, preliminarily impregnated
with an aqueous zinc chloride solution, were studied
previously , and a porous product was synthesized.
However, because of diversity of reactions occurring in
the course of carbonization, it is still poorly understood
what complexes are formed in the course of reaction of