Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 285−288.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © V.M. Farzaliev, A.I. Akhmedov, D.Sh. Gamidova, E.U. Isakov, N.A. Talyshova, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012,
Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 297−301.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Synthesis of Graft Copolymers Based on 1-Hexene Oligomers
and Their Trials as Viscosity Additives
V. M. Farzaliev, A. I. Akhmedov, D. Sh. Gamidova,
E. U. Isakov, and N. A. Talyshova
Kuliev Institute of Chemistry of Additives, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan
Received November 22, 2011
Abstract—Copolymers of decyl methacrylate with 1-hexene were prepared and tested as viscosity additives to
petroleum oils. The inﬂ uence of the concentration of the synthesized copolymers on the viscosity–temperature
characteristics of petroleum oils was examined, and the thermal and mechanical stability of the copolymers in
oils was evaluated.
Base motor oils produced in Azerbaijan have the
viscosity index of the order of 68–82 and require im-
provement of the viscosity–temperature characteristics,
which are essential service characteristics of lubricating
oils. One of the ways to improve these parameters is in-
troduction of viscosity additives, allowing the required
viscosity index of the base oil to be attained. Oil-soluble
vinyl monomers (polyisobutylenes, polyalkyl methacry-
lates, vinyl alkyl ether polymers) do not meet the growing
requirements of the modern engineering. Therefore, stud-
ies are pursued at the Institute of Chemistry of Additives,
National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan [1–5], with
the aim to prepare advanced samples of viscosity addi-
tives by chemical modiﬁ cation of oligomers of higher
α-oleﬁ ns, which are cheap products and can be readily
modiﬁ ed, e.g., by graft copolymerization.
The goal of this study was to graft units of higher
methacrylates (decyl methacrylate) to 1-hexene oligo-
mers. It should be noted that interest in any chemical
product is determined by the availability of raw material
for its production. The starting monomer used, 1-hexene,
is the only α-oleﬁ n for which the raw materials are read-
It is known that α-oleﬁ ns polymerize by the ionic
mechanism and methacrylates, by the radical mechanism.
Therefore, to combine α-oleﬁ n and methacrylate units in
one molecule, we performed the synthesis in two steps:
we performed ﬁ rst 1-hexene oligomerization in the pres-
ence of АlCl
catalyst and then graft copolymerization
of the resulting oligomer with decyl methacrylate in the
presence of a radical polymerization initiator.
A three-necked ﬂ ask equipped with a power-driven
stirrer, a thermometer, and a dropping funnel was charged
with the calculated amount of a solvent (hexane or hep-
tane), and the ﬂ ask was placed in a cooling bath. Then
(1–3%) was added, and freshly distilled 1-hexene
was fed from a dropping funnel. The reaction is exother-
mic. After the self-heating ceased, the 1-hexene feeding
was stopped, the ﬂ ask was cooled to room temperature,
the catalyst was decomposed with a water–isopropanol
mixture, and the reaction product was washed with water
to neutral reaction and ﬁ ltered. The solvent was distilled
off, and volatile fractions were distilled off in a vacuum.
The yield and molecular weight М (by cryoscopy in
naphthalene) of the resulting oligomers were determined.
The results are given in Table 1.
As seen from Table 1, an increase in the oligomeriza-
tion temperature from –20 to +10°С (catalyst consump-
tion 3%) does not affect the yield of the product but