Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 1357−1363.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
Yu. Mirgorod, N.A. Borshch, A.A. Reutov, G.Yu. Yurkov, V.M. Fedosyuk, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82,
No. 8, pp. 1261−1267.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
At present, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are at
the focus of researchers’ and designers’ attention [1–3].
A particular place in this area is occupied by magnetic
nanomaterials and nanostructures [1, 4–6], which can be
used in various magnetic microelectronic devices: high-
efﬁ ciency shields; information recording, storage, and
reading devices; various transducers, etc. . They can
also be applied in medicine and biotechnologies.
Metal nanoparticles are commonly synthesized in
inverse micelles . To obtain nanoparticles in direct
micelles, it is ﬁ rst necessary to synthesize functional
surfactants, e.g., Gd(DS)
, where DS is the dodecyl
sulfate ion, and then to obtain Gd nanoparticles in direct
micelles, using more readily available DSNa surfactants.
It is commonly believed that the electric double layer of
a micelle acts as a template in this case.
It has been shown previously  that Pt–Ni
nanoparticles can be produced in direct micelles of
ordinary surfactants. In this case, the inorganic and
organic ions of a surfactant may be of the same sign,
. The mechanism of such
a synthesis cannot be explained in terms of the classical
model of a direct micelle, i.e., a hydrocarbon drop coated
with an electric double layer.
To explain the synthesis mechanism, it is necessary
to apply a dualistic model of the micelle, which is
a superposition of a contact and hydrated micelles .
A hydrated micelle, into which inorganic ions penetrate
and are afterwards reduced by various reducing agents,
can serve as a template.
The aim of our study was to demonstrate the possibility
of synthesis of magnetic bimetallic Pt–Gd particles in
direct micelles, examine the effect of the nature and
concentration of a surfactant, reducing agents, and
platinum on the synthesis of nanoparticles, and analyze
their magnetic properties.
We used the following main reagents: cetylpyridinium
NCl (CPC) and sodium bis(2-
ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate C
which differ in structure from the previously used
cetyltrimethylammonium chloride ; gadolinium
; platinohydrochloric acid
]; hydrazine hydrate N
(3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyﬂ avone); and rutin (quercetin
3-0-ramnoglucoside) manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich.
Synthesis of Gadolinium-Based Nanoparticles
in a System of Direct Surfactant Micelles
and Study of Their Magnetic Properties
, N. A. Borshch
, A. A. Reutov
, G. Yu. Yurkov
, and V. M. Fedosyuk
Kursk State University, Kursk, Russia
Kursk State Technical University, Kursk, Russia
Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Scientiﬁ c-Practical Center of the National Academy of Belarus for Materials Science, State Research-and-Production
Association, Institute of Solid-State and Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Received February 18, 2009
Abstract—Synthesis method is suggested and the size and shape of Pt–Gd particles formed in reduction of metal
ions in an aqueous system of direct micelles were determined in relation to the concentration of surfactants and
reducing agents: hydrazine hydrate, quercetin, and rutin. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles obtained