ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 339!340. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + Yu.S. Kononov, G.L. Pashkov, V.V. Patrushev, A.G. Kholmogorov, V.P. Plekhanov, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi
Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 339!340.
Synthesis of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide on a Heated Anode
Yu. S. Kononov, G. L. Pashkov, V. V. Patrushev, A. G. Kholmogorov, and V. P. Plekhanov
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Received September 26, 2006
Abstract-Synthesis of electrolytic manganese dioxide on a heated anode was studied. The specific energy
of chemical power cells fabricated using this dioxide in the Zn3Mn system is as high as 100 W h kg
The research aimed to improve the galvanic cell
with a cathode paste composed of manganese dioxide
(MD) is concentrated on making higher the operation
speed and energy density of the cells . As regards
mass production, raising the specific energy of chem-
ical power cells (CPC) is, naturally, of primary
This communication describes a method for syn-
thesis of electrolytic MD of improved quality and
presents the results of tests of CPC fabricated from
the electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) synthesized
by anodic oxidation of manganese(II) ions from
an electrolyte heated to 90395oC. A significant dis-
advantage of this technique is that the resulting EMD
contains, in addition to the g-modification of MnO
its other modifications, which are inactive in
the Zn3Mn system of CPC .
The novelty of the previously developed technique
 consists in that EMD is synthesized at a heated
anode. This makes it possible to heat to a higher tem-
perature the electrosynthesis zone, in which an anodic
deposit of MnO
of mostly g-modification crystallizes.
The higher temperature of EMD synthesis favorably
affects the quantitative yield of the necessary g-mod-
ification of manganese dioxide at the expense of other
modifications (b-, a-, ...).
The electrolytic synthesis of MD was carried out
on an anode made of platinum-plated VT1-0 titanium.
The anode comprising 10 titanium plates (25 mm wide
and 300 mm long) welded in series to form a laby-
rinth was heated with 803200-A ac current. The heat-
ing was controlled by varying the applied voltage,
commonly 335 V at currents of up to 100 A. The an-
ode temperature was measured with a thermometer
introduced into a tube welded in the anode. VT1-0
titanium plates served as cathodes.
The electrolyte was of the commonly used com-
position (1003200 g l
of manganese sulfate) .
It was not specially heated; its temperature varied,
depending on the circulation rate ?between leaching
and electrolysis procedures, from 30 to 95oC.
When determining the specific energy of CPC,
discharge curves were recorded with a self-recorder
connected to an unconventional electrolytic cell with
a zinc anode 25 mm in diameter and 2.5 g of EMD
with addition of 20% carbon black. A solution of
Cl served as electrolyte. The cell load
was 10 or 56 W. The CPC discharge was continued
until the cell voltage decreased to 7003750 mV.
The chemical power cell fabricated from this kind
of EMD has a specific energy (in the Zn3Mn system)
of 100 W h kg
, which markedly exceeds that of com-
mercial CPC of the same type (see table).
Phase composition of electrolytic manganese dioxide and
specific energy of CPC based on this manganese dioxide
in the Zn3Mn system
³ Anode tem- ³Phase com-³ Specific energy
EMD ³ perature in ³ position ³ in the Zn3Mn
³synthesis, oC³ of EMD ³system, W h kg
Comparison³ 80390 ³ g-,a-,b- ³ 45360 
sample ³ No data ³ No data ³ 80 
1 ³ 90 ³ g-,a-,b- ³ 60
2 ³ 105 ³ g-,a-,b- ³ 70
3 ³ 110 ³ g- ³ 100