ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 738−745. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.V. Erohina,V.N. Galashina, T.N. Bogachkova, N.S. Dymnikova, A.P. Moryganov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015,
Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 695−702.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Synthesis of Biologically Active Copper Sols
in the Presence of Complex-Forming Compounds
E. V. Erohina,V. N. Galashina, T. N. Bogachkova,
N. S. Dymnikova, and A. P. Moryganov
Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademicheskaya 1, Ivanovo, 153045 Russia
Received December 25, 2014
Abstract—Spectroscopy, potentiometry, and visual observations were used for a comparative assessment of the
results obtained in reduction of copper with sodium tetrahydroborate in the presence of complex-forming com-
pounds and(or) gelatin. Speciﬁ c features of syntheses of copper sols in the case of their stabilization with amine
derivatives of phosphonic acid were revealed.
The interest in obtaining biologically active copper
sols or copper nanoparticles (NPs) is due to the
pronounced antibacterial effect of copper compounds
and to the fact that copper is a vital element whose
deﬁ ciency in an organism makes slower the healing
of wounds and causes a number of diseases [1, 2]. The
advisability of using ultradispersed particles in fabrication
of antimicrobial copper nanocomposites or biologically
protected materials for medicinal and technical purposes
is due to the following circumstances.
– Metals have advantage when being used as
nanoparticles over ionic forms, which has been conﬁ rmed
by the results of multidisciplinary studies of biological
systems with various organization levels [3–5].
– Copper NPs have a lower (by a factor of 2.5–6)
toxicity, compared with that of its salts .
– Synergism may be exhibited by the properties
of materials constituting the central core and of the
stabilizing component .
Published sources are indicative of the biological
activity of metal nanoparticles in the zero-valence
state [8–10]. When, however, ultradispersed copper
particles are produced by reduction of copper in
aqueous solutions of salts, there exists the problem of
their rather fast oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. In
addition, synthesis of biologically active sols assumes
that concentrated solutions of copper salts should be
used, which leads to a low aggregative stability of the
systems being formed.
The problem of improving the stability of sols and
carbon nanoparticles against aggregation and oxidation
is solved by using stabilizers: polymers of varied nature,
chelates, surfactants, etc. In solutions with a Cu
concentration of 5 × 10
M, a dispersion stable during
25 days is synthesized in an aqueous-alcoholic medium
(10 vol % butanol) in the presence of 3% gelatin at a 2–10-
fold excess of strong sulfur-containing reducing agents
(thiourea dioxide, sodium hydroxymethanesulﬁ nate).
However, the particles being synthesized have an average
size of 1.5 μm (90%) .
Finer copper particles (up to 30 nm) are formed in
polymer solutions by the pseudo-template synthesis
method in which the probability that an NP ceases to grow
because of the noncovalent interaction of its surface with
macromolecules becomes higher with increasing particle
size . A narrow NP size distribution is obtained in
stabilized sols at a substantial excess of macromolecules
and in the cases when the growth rate of particles is
comparable with the rate of their adsorption interaction
with macromolecules of the polymer. In this case, an
increase in the contribution of electrostatic interactions