ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 579−584. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.A. Farberova, E A. Tin’gaeva, A.S. Maksimov, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 546−552.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Synthesis of Activated Coals with Uniform Pore Structure
E. A. Farberova, E. A. Tin’gaeva, and A. S. Maksimov
Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Komsomolskii pr. 29, k. 225, Perm, 614990 Russia
Received April 15, 2015
Abstract–A procedure was developed for preparing carbon-containing materials with uniform pore structure. The
pore structure and sorption characteristics of the activated coals obtained were studied in relation to the condi-
tions of the carbon sorbent synthesis.
Molecular sieves are uniformly porous sorbents selec-
tively taking up substances whose molecular size does
not exceed a certain limit. Molecular sieves are used for
separation of gases, puriﬁ cation of substances, fraction-
ation of polymers, and chromatographic separation of
proteins, carbohydrates, hormones, and antibiotics [1–3].
Breck  distinguishes several types of molecular sieves:
crystalline zeolites, oxides, glasses, polymer carboniza-
tion products, and coals.
The use of porous carbon materials as molecular
sieves is a topical problem today. The distinctive features
of these materials are high adsorption and catalytic
activity combined with sufficiently high stability in
nonoxidizing media, hydrophobicity of the surface, and
wide assortment of product forms, including powders,
granules, ﬁ lms, ﬁ bers, and fabrics [4, 5].
Activated coals prepared from natural carbon-contain-
ing materials are usually heterogeneous both in chemical
composition and in pore structure. The development of
procedures for preparing uniformly porous carbon mo-
lecular sieves (CMSs) consists in the choice of the raw
materials and determination of the conditions for their
heat treatment (carbonization and activation)
The formed activated coals with molecular-sieve
properties should exhibit very narrow pore-size
distribution. They can be prepared via two pathways:
(1) choice of appropriate carbon-containing raw material
and binder and determination of the activation conditions;
(2) modiﬁ cation of ready activated coals with the required
amount of tar, followed by heat treatment at 500–1800°С,
resulting in deposition of pyrocarbon on the surface of
the already formed pores of activated coal.
Taking into account the technology that is being
implemented for the production of activated coals in Rus-
sia, our studies were aimed at preparation of uniformly
porous sorbents starting from coal and using the condi-
tions maximum similar to those of the existing process,
including the steps of component mixing, granulation
by extrusion, carbonization, and steam–gas activation.
To substantiate the choice of the raw material and
determine the parameters for preparing activated coals
with uniform porous structure, we prepared a series of
laboratory samples of carbon sorbents and evaluated their
ability to take up substances with different gas-kinetic
As carbon-containing raw material we used noncaking
coal dust from the Kuznetsk coal ﬁ elds with the particle
size of no more than 0.1 mm, content of volatiles of
18.9 wt %, and content of ash components of 5.8 wt %.
As binder for preparing the granulated sorbent we
used three kinds of liquid tars whose characteristics are
given in Table 1.
The compositions of coal–tar compounds (CTCs)
used for preparing laboratory samples of the sorbents
are given in Table 2.