Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 3, pp. 447−449.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © Yu.V. Popov, Ya.L. Uskach, S.M. Ledenev, D.A. Kroman, V.A. Pavlova, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86,
No. 3, pp. 479−481.
Synthesis of a Sulfur-Containing Additive to Transmission
Lubricants Based on the С
Fraction of α-Oleﬁ ns
Yu. V. Popov, Ya. L. Uskach, S. M. Ledenev, D. A. Kroman, and V. A. Pavlova
Volgograd State Technological University, Volgograd, Russia
Received November 28, 2012
Abstract—A sulfur-containing additive containing 15 wt % of chemically bound sulfur was obtained by the
reaction of the С
fraction of α-oleﬁ ns with elementary sulfur, and optimal conditions of its synthesis were
determined. It was found that this additive can be recommended for transmission lubricants of the SAE GL 80W-
90, API GL-4 (TM 4-12) quality group.
Exploitation of modern equipment is impossible with-
out high-grade lubricants with effective additives. The
most promising of the compounds improving tribologi-
cal properties of lubricants are organic compounds with
a high content of chemically bound sulfur.
One of the most widespread techniques of obtaining
sulfur-containing additives is the reaction of olefin
fractions with elementary sulfur. In the domestic and
foreign practice both individual oleﬁ ns and fractions of
oleﬁ ns up to С
are used as a raw material for production
of these additives .
Sulfur-containing additives based on oleﬁ ns or their
oligomers are widely applied to the preparation of tech-
nological lubricants for the cold massive forming and
deep drawing of metals, thread ﬂ aring and rolling, in
production of lubricant-coolant liquids; furthermore,
these additives are also a necessary component in trans-
mission, geared, and compressor oils, as they raise their
lubricating power .
Fractions of the higher oleﬁ ns С
being large-capacity products of the petrochemical
synthesis, have a stable raw-material base and a rather
low cost, however at present they do not ﬁ nd a qualiﬁ ed
application and often are used as a furnace fuel. In this
connection we have used the С
fraction of α-oleﬁ ns
of the “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” OAO as a feed stock for
the synthesis of sulfur-containing additives.
The gas-chromatographic analysis of this fraction
has shown that it contains more than 20 hydrocarbons of
various structure, the content of С
oleﬁ ns of normal
and iso-structures being 96.5% and that of С
The reaction of the initial fraction with elementary
sulfur was carried out at 150–155°С and a weight ratio
of the initial reagents 1:0.5, respectively. It was found as
a result of these tests that the thermal sulphidation pro-
cess at the above temperature is completed within 4.5 h.
Thus obtained adduct contains up to 25 wt % of sulfur
in total. After removal of corrosion-active components a
product containing up to 15 wt % of chemically bound
sulfur was obtained.
It was found by that the absorption bands at 965 (bend-
ing vibrations of –СН=СН
), 1650 (stretching vibrations
), and 3100 cm
(stretching vibrations of
) characteristic for the initial fraction of α-oleﬁ ns
are absent from the IR spectra of the sulphidation prod-
uct, whereas absorption bands at 600 cm
vibrations of С–S) appear, which point to the saturation
of unsaturated bonds by sulfur.
The resulting product is a dark brown viscous liquid
with a density of 0.987 g cm
soluble in mineral oils