ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 7, pp. 1119−1125. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © K.Yu. Simanskaya, I.D. Grishin, D.F. Grishin,
2016, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 7, pp. 927−934.
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Synthesis of a Complex Additive Based on Stearyl Methacrylate
and Vinyl Acetate for Environmentally Clean Diesel Fuel
K. Yu. Simanskaya, I. D. Grishin, and D. F. Grishin*
Lobachevsky National Research State University, pr. Gagarina 23, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Russia
Received July 18, 2016
Abstract—An additive based on stearyl methacrylate–vinyl acetate copolymer was synthesized by the method
of controlled atom transfer radical polymerization. The additive simultaneously improves the low-temperature
properties of hydrotreated diesel fuels and enhances their resistance to thermal oxidation to meet the European
quality standards. Comparative analysis of the effect exerted on the characteristics of environmentally clean diesel
fuel by the synthesized additive and Dodiﬂ ow commercial depressor additive was made, and the negative effect of
the latter on the thermo oxidative stability of diesel fuel was revealed of the fuel to thermal oxidation was revealed.
The demand for diesel fuel (DF) in industrially
developed countries tends to increase because of wide
use of diesel engines and their apparent advantages over
gasoline analogs. The increase in the DF production
volume makes acute the problem of improving the
operation and environmental characteristics of DF,
in particular, of reducing the emission of harmful
combustion products. The latter is tightly associated
with improvement of the fuel quality [1, 2]. Today, in
production of high-quality DF it is essential, on the one
hand, to remove polynuclear and some heteroatomic
(especially sulfur-containing) compounds in the reﬁ ning
step and, on the other hand, to introduce additives that
purposefully modify the fuel properties [2–4]. Because
of the speciﬁ c climatic features of Russia, oil reﬁ neries
in Russia pay particular attention to the production of
DF with improved low-temperature properties.
It is known  that the composition of the diesel fuel
is characterized by high content of high-molecular-mass
parafﬁ n hydrocarbons, which can crystallize at decreased
temperatures to form a three-dimensional structure with
the loss of the fuel ﬂ uidity. This phenomenon gives
rise to serious problems in operation of engines at low
temperatures, causing plugging of fuel pipelines and
The most efﬁ cient way of improving the low-
temperature properties of DF is the use of depressor
additives. Their use in concentrations on the level of
hundredth fractions of percent allows the congealing
point to be appreciably decreased and the fuel ﬂ uidity to
be improved. Furthermore, the use of depressors makes
it possible to decrease the boiling end temperature of
hydrocarbon fractions in DF, thus ensuring efﬁ cient
utilization of petroleum resources.
Another important requirement to modern diesel
fuels is their resistance to thermal oxidation. In the
course of deep hydrotreating, the removal of sulfur-
containing compounds from the fuel is accompanied
by the removal of natural oxidation inhibitors. As a
result, the formation of precipitates and tars at elevated
temperatures increases, which leads to premature failure
of fuel-feeding devices of diesel engines. The resistance
of the fuel to oxidation is enhanced by introducing
antioxidant additives and metal deactivators suppressing
the catalytic effect of metals on the oxidation.
Today oil reﬁ neries in Russia produce commercial
DF using expensive imported depressor additives.
However, their improving effect on low-temperature
properties of fuels is often accompanied by the negative
effect on the resistance of the fuel to thermal oxidation.