Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 9, pp. 1326−1322.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © E.V. Petrova, A.F. Dresvyannikov, 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 9, pp. 1354−1361.
AND INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Synthesis, Morphology, and Phase Composition
of Manganese Oxide Obtained under Exposure
to External Electric Field
E. V. Petrova and A. F. Dresvyannikov
Kazan National Research Technological University, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia
Received August 5, 2013
Abstract—New method for obtaining highly dispersed manganese oxide under the action of a dc electric ﬁ eld was
suggested. It was found that the electric ﬁ eld parameters affect the phase composition, shape, morphology and size
of manganese oxide particles and the content of water. It is demonstrated that the manganese oxide synthesized can
be used as a vulcanizing agent in manufacture of sealants based on thiocol and surpasses in application efﬁ ciency
the analog produced by the conventional method.
Transition metal oxides are promising for develop-
ment of new functional materials for electronic industry.
Nanodispersed manganese oxide ﬁ nds practical use as a
basis for magnetic materials, sorbents, catalysts, semi-
conductor thermistors, thermoresistors, and cluster-se-
lective sensors [1–4].
Highly dispersed manganese oxide is distinguished
by low degree of structural ordering, has a number of
polymorphic modiﬁ cations, and shows structural insta-
bility. It is characterized both by mutual phase transi-
tions and by transformations to give new phases under
the action of various factors (time, temperature, ambient
medium, electric ﬁ eld, etc.) [5–7].
One of the most widely used methods for obtaining
nanostructured manganese oxide is the mechanochemi-
cal activation based on grinding of a starting mate-
rial with dispersing devices [1, 2, 5]. It is known that a
mechanochemical treatment can stabilize structural pa-
rameters of phases (e.g., the tetragonality parameter for
) that cannot be obtained under normal synthesis
conditions [1, 2]. This method has an acceptable output
capacity, but fails to yield highly dispersed powders be-
cause there exists a certain grinding limit corresponding
to attainment of a kind of equilibrium between the dis-
persion and agglomeration of particles. Even in grinding
of brittle materials, the size of particles being formed is
not, as a rule, smaller than 100 nm and these particles
are constituted by 10–20-nm crystallites. One more dis-
advantage is that, in mechanical grinding, the product
is always contaminated with the material of balls and
lining and by the interaction with atmospheric oxygen.
Present-day studies are aimed to ﬁ nd opportuni-
ties for control over the shape, morphology, and size
of manganese oxide particles [7–12] because just these
parameters, combined with the physicochemical prop-
erties, determine characteristics of the ﬁ nal material.
According to , a process combining the convention-
al chemical precipitation with exposure to an external
electric ﬁ eld enables control over the dispersity of sys-
tems and the shape and morphology of particles in the
The goal of our study was to develop an effective
method for obtaining nanosize manganese oxide par-
ticles with controllable properties and to examine the
fundamental aspects of synthesis under the action of an
external electric ﬁ eld.
The synthesis of manganese oxide samples is