Synthesis, characterization and adsorption behavior
of coconut leaf carbon
J. Ishwara Bhat
Received: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published online: 11 February 2017
Ó Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017
Abstract Adsorption at the liquid–solid interface has numerous applications in the
removal of toxic materials and organic pollutants from water. The present work
reports the adsorption of maleic acid onto activated carbon obtained from coconut
(Cocos nucifera) leaves. Three types of activated carbons were synthesized by
different methods: physical, chemical and microwave activation. In this work, we
characterized these methods by XRD, SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analysis.
Activated carbons were subjected to adsorption of maleic acid and the process of
adsorption was studied as a function of concentration of acid, contact time and
temperature. The polar C–O functional group of the carbon surface attracts H
from the acid solution. This interaction is responsible for the adsorption process.
The adsorption data were ﬁtted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The process
of adsorption was found to follow second order kinetics. The effect of temperature
on adsorption was also studied and the activation energy, change in enthalpy and
entropy were calculated based on the theory of absolute reaction rate expressions.
Keywords Adsorption Á Maleic acid Á Activated carbon Á Coconut leaves Á
Isotherm Á Kinetics Á Thermodynamics
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11164-017-2883-x)
contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
& J. Ishwara Bhat
Department of Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Karnataka 574199, India
Res Chem Intermed (2017) 43:4369–4386