Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1707−1712.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original English Text © V.I. Grachek, A.A. Shunkevich, O.I. Isakovich, R.V. Marstynkevich, V.V. Pansevich 2013, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2013, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 1757−1762.
AND SEPARATION PROCESSES
Synthesis and Properties
of New N,S-Containing Fibrous Ion Exchangers
V. I. Grachek, A. A. Shunkevich, O. I. Isakovich, R. V. Marstynkevich, and V. V. Pansevich
Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Received October 25, 2013
Abstract—New N,S-containing ﬁ brous ion exchangers were prepared by polymer-analogous transformations of
Nitron ﬁ ber, involving amination with polyethylenepolyamines (ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine), fol-
lowed by the reaction of the aminated ﬁ ber with carbon disulﬁ de. The materials obtained efﬁ ciently take up silver
ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions of metal ions and from dilute solutions containing calcium ions.
Sorption and liquid extraction using relatively cheap,
available, selective, and effective reagents are the most
promising methods for recovering pure target components
from artiﬁ cial raw materials. Commercial extractants
and sorbents do not always ensure sufﬁ ciently selective
recovery of metals from solutions. Nitrogen-containing
granular ion exchangers exhibit high ability to take up n
and nonferrous metals, which makes them promising as
sorbents for preconcentration and recovery of valuable
elements [1–3]. A drawback of granular sorbents is their
low speciﬁ c surface area and, as a consequence, low
chemisorption rate. The choice of an ion exchanger for
recovering particular ions is governed not only by its
selectivity, but also by the sorption rate. For ﬁ brous ion
exchangers, the sorption–desorption rate is higher by
1–2 orders of magnitude. One more advantage of ﬁ brous
ion exchangers over granular resins is the possibility of
using them in various forms: complex thread, yarn, fabric,
nonwoven cloth, and powder (knots). The developed
surface and the diversity of forms of ion-exchange ﬁ brous
materials favor rational design of the ﬁ ltration equipment.
Fibrous complexing sorbents, owing to their signiﬁ -
cant advantages over granular sorbents, found wide use
in selective recovery of metal ions from multicomponent
systems , in separation of precious and rare metals [5,
6], in deep puriﬁ cation of acid, alkali, and metal salt solu-
tions, and in analysis of natural and industrial objects .
The goal of this study is preparation of new nitrogen-
containing ﬁ brous ion exchangers and evaluation of their
ability to take up cations capable of complex formation.
As starting material for preparing N,S-containing
sorbents we used Nitron D polyacrylonitrile (P
AN) ﬁ ber
(Polimir Production Association, Novopolotsk, Belarus).
The functional groups were introduced by amination (ﬁ rst
step) followed by the reaction of the aminated ﬁ ber with
carbon disulﬁ de (second step). The amination was per-
formed with 40% aqueous solutions of ethylenediamine
(EDA) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) at 95°С. The reac-
tion time was 10–12 h. The second step, reaction of the
aminated ﬁ ber (AF) with carbon disulﬁ de, was performed
by adding alkali (NaOH) in a dioxane solution at room
temperature with stirring for 1 h, followed by heating at
30°С for 20–24 h. The resulting materials were denoted
as FIBAN S-1 (amination with EDA) and FIBAN S-2
(amination with DETA).
Experiments showed that water became turbid on
contact with the sulfur-containing ﬁ ber. Studies of the
turbid water on a Varian AA-200 atomic absorption spec-
trophotometer showed that the water contained elemental