Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 92−96.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
M.A. Ilyushin, M.A. Aleksandrova, I.V. Bachurina, A.V. Smirnov, I.V. Tselinskii, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010,
Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 94−98.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Synthesis and Properties of an Energetic Complex
with 4-Amino-1,2,4-triazole as Ligand
M. A. Ilyushin, M. A. Aleksandrova, I. V. Bachurina, A. V. Smirnov,
and I. V. Tselinskii
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received October 12, 2009
Abstract—Energetic metal complex, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-N
) pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate, was
produced by the anation reaction of aqua pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate with 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole. The
thermal decomposition of the metal complex and its mixtures with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7)
The standard priming explosives presently
manufactured by the domestic industry (mercuric
fulminate, lead azide, lead styphnate, tetrazene) can be
used to create reliable blast initiators mostly satisfying
the requirements of new technology, industries, and
construction works. However, the requirements to the
initiators are becoming increasingly stringent: blast
initiators with enhanced safety under the action of
a mechanical impact and static electricity are needed.
In addition, ecological safety regulations require that
ions of toxic heavy metals should be excluded from the
composition of these initiators. All this cannot be done
using the standard priming explosives .
One of promising areas in the development of
a new generation of low-toxic priming explosives with
enhanced safety is synthesis of cobalt(III) amminate
perchlorates with polynitrous heterocyclic ligands of
general formula [Co(NH
, where X are
derivatives of polynitrous compounds, mostly tetrazoles
[the maximum permissible concentration of the working
zone (MPCw.z) for Hg, Pb, and Co are 0.01, 0.01, and
0.1 mg m
Complex cobalt(III) perchlorates have already found
practical application in safe blast initiators used in
pyroautomatic systems for rocket and space complexes
and in devices for raising the output of natural gas and
oil wells [3–5]. At the same time, little is known about
properties of energetic cobalt(III) amminates containing
a 1,2,4-triazole moiety.
In this study, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (pK
= 3.23 )
was used as a ligand, which, depending on experimental
conditions, may be either mono- or polydentate ligand
forming stable complexes with d-metal cations [7–9].
An energetic metal complex (1), which is a yellow