Susceptibility of field-collected Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies from Bangladesh and Nepal to different insecticides

Susceptibility of field-collected Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies from... Background: The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian sub-continent. In Bangladesh since 2012, indoor residual spraying (IRS) was applied in VL endemic areas using deltamethrin. In Nepal, IRS was initiated in 1992 for VL vector control using lambda-cyhalothrin. Irrational use of insecticides may lead to vector resistance but very little information on this subject is available in both countries. The objective of this study was to generate information on the susceptibility of the vector sand fly, P. argentipes to insecticide, in support of the VL elimination initiative on the Indian sub-continent. Methods: Susceptibility tests were performed using WHO test kits following the standard procedures regarding alpha cypermethrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), permethrin (0.75%), malathion (5%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) in six upazilas (sub-districts) in Bangladesh. In Nepal, the tests were performed for two insecticides: alpha cypermethrin (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.05%). Adult P. argentipes sand flies were collected in Bangladesh from six VL endemic upazilas (sub-districts) and in Nepal from three endemic districts using manual aspirators. Results: The results show that VL vectors were highly susceptible to all insecticides at 60 minutes of exposure in both countries. In Bangladesh, corrected mortality was 100% at 15 minutes as well as 30 minutes of exposure. The study sites in Nepal, however, showed some diverse results, with a mortality rate less than 90% for 15 minutes of exposure with alpha cypermethrin and deltamethrin in two districts but was above 95% after 30 minutes of exposure. Conclusions: These results suggest that the insecticides tested can still be used in the national programmes of Bangladesh and Nepal. However, insecticide rotation should be performed to mitigate the possible development of insecticide resistance. Periodic susceptibility tests should be performed by the countries to get timely alerts regarding insecticide resistance. Keywords: Susceptibility, Visceral leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus argentipes, Vector control, Alpha cypermethrin, Deltamethrin * Correspondence: rajib478@yahoo.com Rajib Chowdhury and Murari Lal Das contributed equally to this work. Deceased International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 2 of 11 Background in Nepal in 1998 for different insecticides including Visceral leishmanisis (VL) known as kala-azar in the In- DDT (4%), permethrin (0.25%), deltamethrin (0.025%), dian sub-continent is a deadly parasitic disease (if un- lambda-cyhalothrin (0.1%), malathion (5%) and bendio- treated) caused by Leishmania donovani Laveran & carb (0.1%) showing vector mortality rates of 98, 99, 100, Mesnil (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) which is 100, 100 and 100%, respectively, at 60 minutes of expos- transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly Phlebotomus ure [9]. The susceptibility test for deltamethrin was done argentipes Annandale & Brunneti (Diptera: Psychodi- again in Nepal in 2009 showing 96–100% mortality [3]. dae). Phlebotomus argentipes is the only incriminated In Bangladesh, in 2007, 100% sand fly mortality was vector in the Southeast Asia Region. The disease is observed using deltamethrin [4]. However, current in- highly prevalent in the region and is considered to be formation on the status of insecticide resistance in anthroponotic, and the route of transmission from hu- the sand fly population is limited. The objective of man to human. VL was virtually eliminated from this this study was to generate evidence on the current part of world during the malaria eradication era through level of insecticide susceptibility in support of the VL massive DDT spraying for malaria vector control [1]. It vector control programmes in Bangladesh and Nepal. has, however, reemerged since the 1970s after the relax- ation of DDT spraying [1], indicating that effective vec- Methods tor management is crucial to control the disease. The Study area and period use of DDT was banned in Bangladesh and Nepal in The study in Bangladesh was carried out in six VL 1998 and 1995, respectively, due to its environmental endemic upazilas (sub-districts): Fulbaria, Terokhada, hazard [2, 3]. Bera, Pirganj, Godagari and Madhupur under My- VL is endemic in 45 [4] and 18 [5] districts in mensingh,Khulna,Pabna,Rangpur,Rajshahiand Bangladesh and Nepal, respectively. A memorandum of Tangail districts, respectively (Fig. 1a)and Bhathi- understanding (MoU) was signed by the honorable gachha, Tanmuna and West Pipara village develop- Health Ministers from Bangladesh, India and Nepal in ment committees under Morang, Sunsari and Saptari 2005 to eliminate VL (less than one case per 10,000 districts, respectively, (Fig. 1b) in Nepal from Octo- people) by 2015 [6] which was extended to 2017 [7]. Five ber 2015 to October 2016. The study areas were se- regional strategies, i.e. (i) early diagnosis and complete lected purposively in different locations of VL case management, (ii) integrated vector management endemic areas of the country. The average incidence and vector surveillance, (iii) effective disease surveillance of VL was 17.82, 2.45, 1.46, 1.14 in Fulbaria, Tero- through passive and active case detection; (iv) social khada, Godagari and Madhupur upazilas, respect- mobilization and building partnerships, and (v) imple- ively, from 2008 to 2013. Bera, Pirganj upazilas are mentation and operational research, were set up to also endemic but the incidence is less than one case achieve the elimination target [6]. in Bangladesh [4]. Morang district had reported the Since the signing of the MoU, substantial progress has highest case numbers of VL in the year 2016, in been made in the last few years in Bangladesh and Nepal Nepal. Hence, Morang and its two neighboring dis- in terms of reducing VL cases by properly utilizing its tricts were selected for the study. The incidence of regional strategies [8]. Nepal achieved the elimination VL was 0.46, 0.79, 0.48 and 0.51 in Morang District; target (less than one VL case per 10,000 people in all en- 0.14, 0.17, 0.24 and 0.09 in Sunsari District and 0.75, demic districts) and has maintained it for the last two 0.35, 0.24 and 0.15 in Saptari District, for the years years. Bangladesh also achieved a similar target with the 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively [10]. exception of two upazilas (sub-districts) (Fulbaria and Trishal) [8]. Integrated vector management (IVM) is one of the major components of the regional elimination Insecticides and control paper strategy. The elimination initiative has so far been suc- The tests were performed with the following insecticides cessful in Nepal and in most VL endemic parts of in Bangladesh: alpha cypermethrin (0.05%), deltamethrin Bangladesh. However, it is important to maintain the ef- (0.05%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), permethrin forts and avoid the above described re-emergence of (0.75%), malathion (5%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). In vectors after the malaria eradication campaign. Both Nepal, the tests were performed with two insecticides: countries only rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS). alpha cypermethrin (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.05%). IRS has been used in Nepal since 1992 using Two types of oil treated control papers were used: in the lambda-cyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin alternatively case of pyrethroids, the control papers were treated with every few years for kala-azar control [9] while in silicone oil and in the case of organophosphate/carba- Bangladesh deltamethrin has been used since 2012 [4]. mate insecticides, the control papers were treated with The first susceptibility test of VL vectors was conducted olive oil. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 3 of 11 Collection of sand flies from the field Collected sand flies were transferred to a cage in the Wild sand flies were collected from human dwellings in field laboratory where tests were performed after one the above-mentioned areas in the evening from 6:30 to hour or longer to settle down from transportation stress. 20:30 h by manual aspirator and using torch light. Only P. argentipes sand flies were used for the testing Fig. 1 a Study area map of Bangladesh (Key to upazilas: 1, Fulbaria; 2, Madhupur; 3, Pirganj; 4, Bera; 5, Terokhada; 6, Godagari). b Study area map of Nepal (Key to districts: 1, Morang; 2, Sunssari; 3, Saptari) Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 4 of 11 Table 1 Mortality of P. argentipes to alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [35 (29.16)] 122 [65 (53.28)] 125 [111 (88.80)] 120 (100) 122 (100) 125 (100) Madhupur Tangail 121 [32 (26.45)] 125 [59 (47.20)] 128 [115 (89.84)] 121 (100) 125 (100) 128 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 122 [37 (30.33)] 120 [69 (57.50)] 122 [109 (89.34)] 122 (100) 120 (100) 122 (100) Bera Pabna 124 [39 (31.45)] 121 [62 (51.24)] 123 [111 (90.24)] 124 (100) 121 (100) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 123 [41 (33.33)] 124 [71 (57.26)] 126 [112 (88.89)] 123 (100) 124 (100) 126 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 126 [43 (34.13)] 124 [63 (50.81)] 122 [110 (90.16)] 126 (100) 124 (100) 122 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate after separating them from other species. A manual as- during the recovery period for 24 h. The percent mortality pirator was used to transfer P. argentipes sand flies to was calculated by counting the dead and alive P. argen- the holding tube which was marked with a green dot. tipes sand flies after 24 h of recovery; sand fly mortality The exposure tubes were marked with a red dot and was corrected by using Abbott’sformula ½P ¼ðPi −CÞ=ð1 Pi‐c lined with insecticide-impregnated paper. 00−CÞ 100P ¼ xd, where P is the corrected mortal- 100−c ity, Pi is the percent observed mortality in immediate ex- Test procedure posed sand flies, and C is the percent mortality in control] The tests were performed as per the World Health where control mortality should be within 5–20%. Tests Organization (WHO) recommended procedure [11, 12] were invalid in the case of control mortality exceeding with the above-mentioned insecticides. WHO test kits, 20% and those tests were repeated. The cut-off percentage insecticide-impregnated and oil treated control papers was < 20% [11]. The insecticide-impregnated papers were were obtained from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (WHO used 4 times and after use they were stored in their re- collaborating Center). Tests were performed at a spective packets. A small line was drawn in one corner of temperature and relative humidity of 28 ± 2 °C and the paper to mark the number of uses for each paper. 70–80%, respectively. For each district, we had an inde- pendent set of bioassays with an independent control Sand fly identification group. In Bangladesh, six replicates containing 20–25 fe- Female P. argentipes sand flies were sorted by their mor- male P. argentipes sand flies in each replicate were used phological characteristics prior to conducting the tests. for each insecticide and control group. In Nepal, 5 repli- All evaluated sand flies (live and dead) were identified cates were used for each insecticide together with a con- using the standard taxonomic key described by Lewis trol group. The other procedures remained the same. [13, 14] and Kalra & Bang [15]. After exposure, knockdown (KD) was recorded after the test period for each insecticide and control. The holding tubes were kept for recovery in dark and cool places im- Results mediately after exposure for the requisite period. Fresh The results in Bangladesh of the susceptibility tests per- sugar solution on cotton was given as supplementary food formed on wild populations of female P. argentipes sand Table 2 Mortality status of P. argentipes to deltamethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [28 (23.33)] 121 [53 (43.80) ] 120 [105 (87.5)] 120 (100) 121 (100) 120 (100) Madhupur Tangail 124 [32 (25.81)] 121 [55 (45.45)] 121 [107 (88.43)] 124 (100) 121 (100) 121 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [35 (29.17)] 126 [63 (50.00)] 120 [109 (90.83)] 120 (100) 126 (100) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [35 (27.78)] 122 [59 (48.36)] 120 [105 (87.5)] 126 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Terokhada Khulna 121 [42 (34.71)] 122 [66 (54.10)] 126 [112 (88.89)] 121 (100) 122 (100) 126 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 124 [39 (31.45)] 123 [57 (46.34)] 127 [114 (89.76)] 124 (100) 123 (100) 127 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 5 of 11 Table 3 Mortality status of P. argentipes to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand fly exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [23 (19.17)] 122 [51 (41.80)] 120 [108 (90.00)] 120 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Madhupur Tangail 126 [28 (22.22)] 123 [52 (42.28)] 122 [112 (91.80)] 126 (100) 123 (100) 122 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 126 [35 (27.78)] 121 [55 (45.45)] 124 [112 (90.32)] 126 (100) 121 (100) 124 (100) Bera Pabna 122 [31 (25.41)] 124 [59 (47.58)] 120 [110 (91.67)] 122 (100) 124 (100) 120 (100) Terokhada Khulna 121 [29 (24.97)] 120 [51 (42.50)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 120 (100) 122 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 123 [24 (19.51)] 126 [51 (40.48)] 126 [110 (87.30)] 123 (100) 126 (100) 126 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate flies with different insecticide-impregnated papers are results were found for 15 and 30 minutes of expos- shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The KD rate ure (Table 14). These results indicate the need for for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure to different insecti- establishing the susceptibility status of vector sand cides varied between 19.17–40.98%, 40.48–74.19% and flies for above tested (alpha-cypermethrin and delta- 81.15–96.77%, respectively. Tables 7 and 8 show that no methrin) as well as other insecticides in the pipeline KD was observed for any insecticides in any study sites for IRS in Nepal. in the control group and almost 100% of sand flies were In this study, two insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin alive 24 h post-exposure. The VL vector, P. argentipes, and deltamethrin, were used in both Bangladesh and was found susceptible to all insecticides tested in the Nepal; the tests performed, and the comparative find- study as 100% corrected mortality was observed 24 h ings are shown in Fig. 2. In Bangladesh, the mortality post-exposure (Table 9). was 100% for both insecticides for 15, 30 and 60 mi- The study results in Nepal are shown in Tables 10, nutes exposure, whilst this was the case only for 30 11, 12, 13 and 14. They show that the KD rates of minutes exposure for alpha-cypermethrin and 60 mi- alpha cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 16.22– nutes exposure for both insecticides in Nepal. In 27.27%, 77.78–83.18% and 93.20–97.27% for 15, 30 Nepal, the mortality dropped to 92.9 and 93.7 from and 60 minutes exposure, respectively. The mortality 100% for 15 minutes exposure for both insecticides rate was 100 % for 60 minutes of exposure for both and to 97.0 from 100% at 30 minutes exposure for insecticides in all three study districts but different deltamethrin. Fig. 2 Average number of Phlebotomus argentipes exposed and their corrected mortality for two common insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin tested in each study sites in Bangladesh (six study sites and six replicates in each site) and Nepal (three study sites and five replicates in each site) Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 6 of 11 Table 4 Mortality status of P. argentipes to permethrin (0.75%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 121 [26 (21.49)] 123 [64 (52.03)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 123 (100) 122 (100) Madhupur Tangail 126 [28 (22.22)] 125 [65 (52.00)] 120 [103 (85.83)] 126 (100) 125 (100) 120 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 125 [30 (24.00)] 122 [62 (50.82)] 120 [105 (87.5)] 125 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 121 [31 (25.61)] 124 [57 (45.97)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 124 (100) 122 (100) Terokhada Khulna 122 [28 (22.95)] 121 [58 (47.93)] 124 [105 (84.68)] 122 (100) 121 (100) 124 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 123 [30 (24.39)] 120 [63 (52.50)] 120 [106 (88.33)] 123 (100) 120 (100) 120 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Discussion no longer binds to its target or through detoxification Insect-borne diseases remain a major public health enzyme-based resistance, which occurs when enhanced concern in resource constrained situations. About 30 levels or modified activities of esterases, oxidases, or gluta- different species of phlebotomine sand flies are re- thione S-transferases prevent the insecticide from reaching sponsible for transmitting leishmaniasis worldwide its site of action [18]. [16]. Vector control is an important element to In the present study, we did not perform assays of minimize the vector-borne disease burden in the the susceptibility of sand flies because the lethal doses countries and in fact, it heavily relies upon different of all classes of insecticides are generally similar to insecticides. The inappropriate application (overuse those for mosquitoes [19] and determined the doses and misuse) of insecticides have led to the emergence for the purpose of discriminating concentrations in of resistance, which undermines the potency of vector routine insecticide resistance monitoring. This is now control. Usually there are four possible types of insec- well established and widely adopted for the purposes ticides resistance observed, i.e. (i) increased metabol- of testing and monitoring insecticide resistance in ism to non-toxic products, (ii) decreased target site mosquitoes and other disease vectors [20]. Wild-caught P. sensitivity, (iii) decreased rates of insecticide penetra- argentipes female sand flies were used in the present study tion and (iv) increased rates of insecticide excretion, as none of the study countries have a sand fly colony. for four major classes of insecticides (organochlorines, The present study confirmed that P. argentipes sand flies organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids) [17]. in Bangladesh are susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin, del- Development of resistance is an evolutionary phenomenon tamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, malathion caused by either behavioural avoidance or physiological or and bendiocarb as 100% mortality was observed at 60 mi- biochemical factors of any targeted insects. This can be nutes of exposure. In Nepal, incipient signs of resistance tackled judiciously by implementing appropriate and development were observed: the mortality rate was below comprehensive resistance monitoring and management 90% after 15 minutes and about 95% after 30 minutes of strategies within the framework of integrated vector man- exposure to pyrethroid insecticides but 100% after 60 mi- agement. Insecticide resistance occurs when the insecticide nutes of exposure for both insecticides which is slightly Table 5 Mortality status of P. argentipes to malathion (5%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 122 [53 (43.44)] 124 [92 (74.19)] 124 [120 (96.77)] 122 (100) 124 (100) 124 (100) Madhupur Tangail 122 [50 (40.98)] 120 [87 (72.50)] 120 [112 (93.33)] 122 (100) 120 (100) 120 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [53 (44.17)] 120 [83 (69.17)] 121 [114 (94.21)] 120 (100) 120 (100) 121 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [57 (45.24)] 122 [86 (70.49)] 123 [111 (90.24)] 126 (100) 122 (100) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 125 [55 (44.00)] 126 [91 (72.22)] 122 [115 (94.26)] 125 (100) 126 (100) 122 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 121 [54 (44.63)] 126 [89 (70.63)] 124 [116 (93.55)] 121 (100) 126 (100) 124 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 7 of 11 Table 6 Mortality status of P. argentipes to bendiocarb (0.1%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 122 [42 (35.00)] 125 [81 (66.39)] 123 [102 (82.93)] 122 (100) 125 (100) 123 (100) Madhupur Tangail 120 [48 (39.34)] 122 [82 (67.21)] 122 [99 (81.15)] 118 (98.33) 121 (99.18) 122 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 122 [47 (38.52)] 122 [79 (64.75)] 120 [98 (81.67)] 121 (99.18) 121 (99.18) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [52 (41.27)] 120 [82 (67.21)] 123[104 (84.55)] 125 (99.21) 119 (99.17) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 124 [51 (41.13)] 120 [83 (68.03)] 123[101 (82.11)] 122 (98.39) 120 (100) 123 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 125 [44 (35.20)] 126 [85 (69.67)] 120 [101 (84.17)] 123 (98.4) 124 (98.41) 120 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate different (the mortality was between 96–99% for 60 mi- Continuous vector control activities with rational use of nutes for deltamethrin 0.05%) from an earlier study con- quality insecticide are essential to sustain this achievement ducted in Nepal and India [3]. Two insecticides and eliminate the disease. As mentioned before, VL was (deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin) were tested in the virtually eliminated from Bangladesh and Nepal due to both countries and the findings indicate that the P. argen- the massive use of DDT for IRS during the malaria eradi- tipes populations are on the way to developing tolerance cation era [1, 2] but reappeared in the sub-continent due against both insecticides in Nepal whereas they are still to a lack of effective vector control activities in the 100% susceptible in Bangladesh. In Nepal, pyrethroid post-eradication phase. IRS is an expensive operation so it based (alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and delta- must be carried out using appropriate insecticides to methrin) IRS has been in practice for a long time and vari- achieve the optimum results against the targeted vector. ous types of pyrethroids are in use in different years. Periodic monitoring insecticide efficacy through suscepti- Rotation of insecticide for IRS is still not foreseen in bility tests (by WHOPES suggested method) is needed to Nepal, hence it is essential to monitor the available in- have updated information on vector susceptibility to in- secticide for its efficacy to control vectors of VL. It is also secticides. IRS is an operationally challenging activity in worth mentioning that if the potential emergence of re- terms of maintaining its optimum quality. Due to poor sistance is observed, we need to go for next step (molecu- operation and relatively lower disease burden, the com- lar mechanism) of confirmation resistance test. munity acceptance of IRS is gradually decreasing in the The VL vector control programmes in Bangladesh and Indian sub-continent (personal observation of RC). A Nepal are completely dependent on insecticide-based in- study in India and Nepal identified that IRS is effective on terventions, mainly IRS using synthetic pyrethroids (delta- vector reduction when it was carried out by the research methrin, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) in team in a controlled situation but it was deficient when it human dwellings as well as in cattle sheds. Nepal reached was carried out by the National Programme [21]. the elimination target (less than one case per 10,000 Long-term irrational use of insecticide may develop toler- people at district level) for the last few years; Bangladesh ance or resistance on its targeted insects which we ob- has yet to achieve it as a few upazilas (sub-districts) are served in Nepal. The WHOPES-recommended still reporting incidence rates above the elimination target. susceptibility test kits and insecticide-impregnated paper Table 7 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [0 (0)] 124 [0 (0)] 126 [0 (0)] 0 0 7 (5.56) Madhupur Tangail 122 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 8 (6.67) 0 Pirgonj Rangpur 125 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Bera Pabna 121 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Terokhada Khulna 123 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 0 0 9 (7.32) Godagari Rajshahi 124 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 0 9 (7.5) 0 Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 8 of 11 Table 8 Control mortality in olive oil: OP/CR status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 121 [0 (0)] 124 [0 (0)] 126 [0 (0)] 0 8 (6.45) 0 Madhupur Tangail 125 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 9 (7.5) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 8 (6.67) Bera Pabna 120 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Terokhada Khulna 124 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Godagari Rajshahi 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 121 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, OP organophosphates, CR carbamate Table 9 Susceptibility status of P. argentipes to different insecticides in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure in Bangladesh. Values without parentheses indicate observation at 15 minutes, those in parentheses - at 30 minutes and those in square brackets - at 60 minutes Insecticide District Mymensingh Tangail Rangpur Pabna Khulna Rajshahi Upazila Fulbaria Madhupur Pirganj Bera Terokhada Godagari Alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [125] 121 (125) [128] 122 (120) [122] 124 (121) [123] 123 (124) [126] 126 (124) [122] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Deltamethrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (121) [120] 124 (121) [121] 120 (126) [120] 126 (122) [120] 121 (122) [126] 124 (123) [127] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [120] 126 (123) [122] 126 (121) [124] 122 (124) [120] 121 (120) [122] 123 (126) [126] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Permethrin (0.75%) No. of exposed 121(123) [122] 126 (125) [120] 125 (122) [120] 121 (124) [122] 122 (121) [124] 123 (120) [120] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Malathion (5%) No. of exposed 122 (124) [124] 122 (120) [120] 120 (120) [121] 126 (122) [123] 125 (126) [122] 121 (126) [124] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (6.45) [0] 0 (0) [7.5] 0 (0) [6.67] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Bendiocarb (0.1%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [123] 122 (125) [122] 122 (122) [120] 126 (120) [123] 124 (120) [123] 125 (126) [120] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (6.45) [0] 0 (0) [7.5] 0 (0) [6.67] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Abbreviation: S susceptible Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 9 of 11 Table 10 Mortality status of P. argentipes to alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 111 [23 (20.72)] 108 [84 (77.78)] 109 [106 (97.25)] 100 (89.89) 108 (100) 109 (100) Sunsari Tanmuna 110 [30 (27.27)] 107 [89 (83.18)] 106 [100 (94.34)] 105 (95.45) 107 (100) 106 (100) Saptari West Pipara 111 [18 (16.22)] 105 [82 (78.10)] 104 [99 (95.19)] 106 (95.10) 105 (100) 104 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Table 11 Mortality status of P. argentipes to deltamethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 114 [31 (27.19)] 103 [75 (72.82)] 110 [107 (97.27)] 107 (93.86) 99 (95.73) 110 (100) Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [21 (20.19)] 108 [88 (81.48)] 103 [96 (93.20)] 93 (89.42) 103 (95.37) 103 (100) Saptari West Pipara 114 [19 (16.67)] 108 [79 (73.15)] 109 [103 (94.50)] 109 (95.48) 108 (100) 109 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Table 12 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) for alpha-cypermethrin in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 102 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 117 [0 (0)] 2 (1.96) 2 (1.92) 6 (5.13) Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 107 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Saptari West Pipara 112 [0 (0)] 103 [0 (0)] 115 [0 (0)] 9 (8.04) 2 (1.94) 10 (8.70) Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Table 13 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) for deltamethrin in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Observation time (min) Observation time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 102 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 10 (9.09) 0 Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [0 (0)] 100 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Saptari West Pipara 104 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 3 (2.88) 4 (3.85) 5 (4.55) Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 10 of 11 Table 14 Susceptibility status of P. argentipes to different insecticides in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure in Nepal. Values without parentheses indicate observation at 15 minutes, those in parentheses - at 30 minutes and those in square brackets - at 60 minutes Insecticide District Morang Sunsari Saptari Village development committee Bhathigachh Tanmuna West Pipara Alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) No. exposed 111 (108) [109] 110 (107) [106] 111 (105) [104] % mortality 90.09 (100) [100] 95.45 (100) [100] 95.50 (100) [100] % control mortality 1.96 (1.92) [5.13] 0 (0) [0] 8.04 (1.94) [8.70] Corrected mortality 89.89 (100) [100] 95.45 (100) [100] 95.10 (100) [100] Status S? S S Deltamethrin (0.05%) No. exposed 114 (103) [110] 104 (108) [103] 114 (108) [109] % mortality 93.86 (96.12) [100] 89.42 (95.37) [100] 95.61 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (9.09) [0] 0 (0) [0] 2.88 (3.85) [4.55] Corrected mortality 93.86 (95.73) [100] 89.42 (95.37) [100] 95.48 (100) [100] Status S S? S Abbreviations: S susceptible are only available at Universiti Sains Malaysia and to ob- Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge Nurul Alam, Muzahidul Islam, Beauti Akter and tain them in time is difficult which affects the planned ac- Shahidullah in Bangladesh and Shashi Majhi, Manish Karn, Satyanarayan tivity so WHO may come forward to find out the solution. Bhagat and Kailash Majhi in Nepal for their field assistance in conducting the In the case of Bangladesh, the chance of cross-resistance study. The authors are also thankful to the UHFPOs and HI in-charge of Ful- baria, Madhupur, Pirgonj, Bera, Terokhada and Godagari upazilas and their is very unlikely as there were virtually no vector control staff in Bangladesh and District Public Health Officers and vector control offi- activities for a long time (1997–2012) [4, 22]. Limited cers of Morang, Sunsari and Saptari districts in Nepal, for providing the infor- scale IRS was conducted in 2012 using deltamethrin 5WP mation on kala-azar and assistance in conducting the study. We highly acknowledge M Mamun Huda and Md. Sahidul Islam for their comments in Bangladesh and since then it has continued, usually and critical review. The study was supported by the Special Programme for with two rounds of spraying. While IRS has been carried Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health out in Nepal using synthetic pyrethroids for a long time as Organization (WHO). In Bangladesh, susceptibility kits, insecticide- impregnated and control papers were provided by the NTD Department of part of VL vector control activities, the current study did WHO. not evaluate the cross-resistance as a fully susceptible ref- erence strain of P. argentipes was not available. Funding The study was funded by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. Conclusions In conclusion, it is recommended that the national con- Availability of data and materials The data supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the trol programme in Bangladesh and Nepal can use article. alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, malathion and bendiocarb for VL vector con- Authors’ contributions trol. In Nepal, however, deltamethrin or alpha-cypermethrin RC, MLD, DA and AK drafted the manuscript. RC, MLD, VC, NPM and AK conceived and designed the study. LR, SF, JP, SA and RKK collected the data. should be used judiciously. In both cases, insecticide rota- RC, MLD and VC monitored the study activities. VC performed overall data tion should be performed to mitigate the possible develop- analysis. RC, MLD, NPM, DA and AK acquired funding for the study. All ment of insecticide resistance. Periodic susceptibility tests authors read and approved the final manuscript except NPM. should be performed by the countries to get timely alerts Ethics approval and consent to participate regarding insecticide resistance. The study proposal was approved by the Bangladesh Medical Research Council (BMRC) and in Nepal by the BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) Institutional Review Committee and Nepal Health Research Council Abbreviations (NHRC). Prior to funding, the proposal was reviewed by the Special BMRC: Bangladesh Medical Research Council; BPKIHS: BP Koirala Institute of Programme for Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health Sciences; DDT: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; IRS: Indoor residual Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. Prior permission was spraying; IVM: Integrated vector management; KD: Knockdown; obtained from household head of residences for the collection of sand flies. MoU: Memorandum of understanding; OP/CR: Organophosphate/carbamate; PY: Pyrethroid; VL: Visceral leishmanisis; WHO: World Health Organization; WHOPES: World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme; Competing interests WP: Wettable powder The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 11 of 11 Publisher’sNote 18. Brogdon WG, McAllister JC. Insecticide resistance and vector control. J Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Agromedicine. 2004;9:329–45. published maps and institutional affiliations. 19. World Health Organization. Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance (6th edition). 2006. Author details Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, WHO Pesticide International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, evaluation scheme (WHOPES). http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/ Bangladesh. National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), 69795/1/WHO_CDS_NTD_WHOPES_GCDPP_2006.1_eng.pdf; Accessed 25 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, July 2017. Dharan 56700, Nepal. Dhaka College, New Market, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh. 20. World Health Organization. Test procedures for insecticide resistance Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes (2nd edition). Global Malaria Bangladesh. World Health Organization (WHO), 1211, 27 Geneva, Programme. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/ Switzerland. Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical bitstream/10665/250677/1/9789241511575-eng.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2017 Diseases, World Health Organization, 1211, 27 Geneva, Switzerland. Centre 21. Chowdhury R, Huda MM, Kumar V, Das P, Joshi AB, Banjara MR, et al. The for Medicine and Society/Anthropology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Indian and Nepalese programmes of indoor residual spraying for the Germany. elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: performance and effectiveness. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105:31–5. Received: 1 December 2017 Accepted: 23 May 2018 22. Mondal D, Alam MS, Karim Z, Haque R, Boelaert M, Kroeger A. Present situation of vector control in Bangladesh: a wake up call. Health Policy. 2008;87:369–76. References 1. Bern C, Chowdhury R. The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh and prospects for improved control. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123: 275–88. 2. Rahman M. Insecticide substitutes for DDT to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2064–9. 3. Dinesh DS, Das ML, Picado A, Roy L, Rijal S, Singh SP, et al. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in visceral leishmaniasis endemic districts in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e859. 4. Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Chowdhury V, Faria S, Alvar J, Nabi SG, et al. How far are we from visceral leishmaniasis elimination in Bangladesh? An assessment of epidemiological surveillance data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8: e3020. 5. Annual Report of Department of Health Services 2072/73 (2015/2016). Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal; 2016. 6. World Health Organization. Regional strategic framework for elimination of kala-azar from South East Asia region (2005–2015). New Delhi: SEA-VBC-85- REV-1; 2005. 7. WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia. Report of the sixty-seventh session, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2014 September 9–12. New Delhi: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2014. p. 1–149. 8. Zijlstra EE, Alves F, Rijal S, Arana B, Alvar J. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: a threat to the South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11: e0005877. 9. Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD). The annual internal assessment of Malaria and Kala-azar control activities 1999. Department of Health Services. Epidemiology and Disease Control Division and Vector Borne Disease Research and Training Centre. Ministry of Health, HMG/N, Nepal; 2000. 10. Lal BK. Meeting to update National Strategic Guideline on Kala-azar Elimination Program in Nepal, 8–9 January 2018. Kathmandu; 2018. 11. World Health Organization. Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adults blackflies, sandflies and biting midges to insecticides. VBC/81.810. Geneva: WHO; 1981. 12. World Health Organization. Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces, Report of the WHO Informal Consultation. WHO/CDS/ CPC/MAL/98.12. Geneva: WHO; 1998. 13. Lewis DJ. The phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of oriental region. Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist) Entomol. 1978;37:217–343. 14. Lewis DJ. A taxonomic review of the genus phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist). 1982;45:121–209. 15. Kalra NL, Bang YH. Manual on entomology in visceral leishmaniasis. Document SEA/VBC/35. New Delhi: World Health Organization; 1998. 16. Bailey MS, Lockwood DN. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Dermatol. 2007; 25:203–11. 17. World Health Organization. Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanism (Field and laboratory manual); World Health Organization, Department of Disease Prevention & Control, WHO Communicable Diseases (CDS); WHO/CDS/CPCIMALl98.6; 1998. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/ 10665/83780/1/WHO_CDS_CPC_MAL_98.6.pdf; Accessed 14 Aug 2017. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Parasites & Vectors Springer Journals

Susceptibility of field-collected Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies from Bangladesh and Nepal to different insecticides

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Biomedicine; Parasitology; Entomology; Tropical Medicine; Infectious Diseases; Veterinary Medicine/Veterinary Science; Virology
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Abstract

Background: The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian sub-continent. In Bangladesh since 2012, indoor residual spraying (IRS) was applied in VL endemic areas using deltamethrin. In Nepal, IRS was initiated in 1992 for VL vector control using lambda-cyhalothrin. Irrational use of insecticides may lead to vector resistance but very little information on this subject is available in both countries. The objective of this study was to generate information on the susceptibility of the vector sand fly, P. argentipes to insecticide, in support of the VL elimination initiative on the Indian sub-continent. Methods: Susceptibility tests were performed using WHO test kits following the standard procedures regarding alpha cypermethrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), permethrin (0.75%), malathion (5%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) in six upazilas (sub-districts) in Bangladesh. In Nepal, the tests were performed for two insecticides: alpha cypermethrin (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.05%). Adult P. argentipes sand flies were collected in Bangladesh from six VL endemic upazilas (sub-districts) and in Nepal from three endemic districts using manual aspirators. Results: The results show that VL vectors were highly susceptible to all insecticides at 60 minutes of exposure in both countries. In Bangladesh, corrected mortality was 100% at 15 minutes as well as 30 minutes of exposure. The study sites in Nepal, however, showed some diverse results, with a mortality rate less than 90% for 15 minutes of exposure with alpha cypermethrin and deltamethrin in two districts but was above 95% after 30 minutes of exposure. Conclusions: These results suggest that the insecticides tested can still be used in the national programmes of Bangladesh and Nepal. However, insecticide rotation should be performed to mitigate the possible development of insecticide resistance. Periodic susceptibility tests should be performed by the countries to get timely alerts regarding insecticide resistance. Keywords: Susceptibility, Visceral leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus argentipes, Vector control, Alpha cypermethrin, Deltamethrin * Correspondence: rajib478@yahoo.com Rajib Chowdhury and Murari Lal Das contributed equally to this work. Deceased International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 2 of 11 Background in Nepal in 1998 for different insecticides including Visceral leishmanisis (VL) known as kala-azar in the In- DDT (4%), permethrin (0.25%), deltamethrin (0.025%), dian sub-continent is a deadly parasitic disease (if un- lambda-cyhalothrin (0.1%), malathion (5%) and bendio- treated) caused by Leishmania donovani Laveran & carb (0.1%) showing vector mortality rates of 98, 99, 100, Mesnil (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) which is 100, 100 and 100%, respectively, at 60 minutes of expos- transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly Phlebotomus ure [9]. The susceptibility test for deltamethrin was done argentipes Annandale & Brunneti (Diptera: Psychodi- again in Nepal in 2009 showing 96–100% mortality [3]. dae). Phlebotomus argentipes is the only incriminated In Bangladesh, in 2007, 100% sand fly mortality was vector in the Southeast Asia Region. The disease is observed using deltamethrin [4]. However, current in- highly prevalent in the region and is considered to be formation on the status of insecticide resistance in anthroponotic, and the route of transmission from hu- the sand fly population is limited. The objective of man to human. VL was virtually eliminated from this this study was to generate evidence on the current part of world during the malaria eradication era through level of insecticide susceptibility in support of the VL massive DDT spraying for malaria vector control [1]. It vector control programmes in Bangladesh and Nepal. has, however, reemerged since the 1970s after the relax- ation of DDT spraying [1], indicating that effective vec- Methods tor management is crucial to control the disease. The Study area and period use of DDT was banned in Bangladesh and Nepal in The study in Bangladesh was carried out in six VL 1998 and 1995, respectively, due to its environmental endemic upazilas (sub-districts): Fulbaria, Terokhada, hazard [2, 3]. Bera, Pirganj, Godagari and Madhupur under My- VL is endemic in 45 [4] and 18 [5] districts in mensingh,Khulna,Pabna,Rangpur,Rajshahiand Bangladesh and Nepal, respectively. A memorandum of Tangail districts, respectively (Fig. 1a)and Bhathi- understanding (MoU) was signed by the honorable gachha, Tanmuna and West Pipara village develop- Health Ministers from Bangladesh, India and Nepal in ment committees under Morang, Sunsari and Saptari 2005 to eliminate VL (less than one case per 10,000 districts, respectively, (Fig. 1b) in Nepal from Octo- people) by 2015 [6] which was extended to 2017 [7]. Five ber 2015 to October 2016. The study areas were se- regional strategies, i.e. (i) early diagnosis and complete lected purposively in different locations of VL case management, (ii) integrated vector management endemic areas of the country. The average incidence and vector surveillance, (iii) effective disease surveillance of VL was 17.82, 2.45, 1.46, 1.14 in Fulbaria, Tero- through passive and active case detection; (iv) social khada, Godagari and Madhupur upazilas, respect- mobilization and building partnerships, and (v) imple- ively, from 2008 to 2013. Bera, Pirganj upazilas are mentation and operational research, were set up to also endemic but the incidence is less than one case achieve the elimination target [6]. in Bangladesh [4]. Morang district had reported the Since the signing of the MoU, substantial progress has highest case numbers of VL in the year 2016, in been made in the last few years in Bangladesh and Nepal Nepal. Hence, Morang and its two neighboring dis- in terms of reducing VL cases by properly utilizing its tricts were selected for the study. The incidence of regional strategies [8]. Nepal achieved the elimination VL was 0.46, 0.79, 0.48 and 0.51 in Morang District; target (less than one VL case per 10,000 people in all en- 0.14, 0.17, 0.24 and 0.09 in Sunsari District and 0.75, demic districts) and has maintained it for the last two 0.35, 0.24 and 0.15 in Saptari District, for the years years. Bangladesh also achieved a similar target with the 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively [10]. exception of two upazilas (sub-districts) (Fulbaria and Trishal) [8]. Integrated vector management (IVM) is one of the major components of the regional elimination Insecticides and control paper strategy. The elimination initiative has so far been suc- The tests were performed with the following insecticides cessful in Nepal and in most VL endemic parts of in Bangladesh: alpha cypermethrin (0.05%), deltamethrin Bangladesh. However, it is important to maintain the ef- (0.05%), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), permethrin forts and avoid the above described re-emergence of (0.75%), malathion (5%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). In vectors after the malaria eradication campaign. Both Nepal, the tests were performed with two insecticides: countries only rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS). alpha cypermethrin (0.05%) and deltamethrin (0.05%). IRS has been used in Nepal since 1992 using Two types of oil treated control papers were used: in the lambda-cyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin alternatively case of pyrethroids, the control papers were treated with every few years for kala-azar control [9] while in silicone oil and in the case of organophosphate/carba- Bangladesh deltamethrin has been used since 2012 [4]. mate insecticides, the control papers were treated with The first susceptibility test of VL vectors was conducted olive oil. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 3 of 11 Collection of sand flies from the field Collected sand flies were transferred to a cage in the Wild sand flies were collected from human dwellings in field laboratory where tests were performed after one the above-mentioned areas in the evening from 6:30 to hour or longer to settle down from transportation stress. 20:30 h by manual aspirator and using torch light. Only P. argentipes sand flies were used for the testing Fig. 1 a Study area map of Bangladesh (Key to upazilas: 1, Fulbaria; 2, Madhupur; 3, Pirganj; 4, Bera; 5, Terokhada; 6, Godagari). b Study area map of Nepal (Key to districts: 1, Morang; 2, Sunssari; 3, Saptari) Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 4 of 11 Table 1 Mortality of P. argentipes to alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [35 (29.16)] 122 [65 (53.28)] 125 [111 (88.80)] 120 (100) 122 (100) 125 (100) Madhupur Tangail 121 [32 (26.45)] 125 [59 (47.20)] 128 [115 (89.84)] 121 (100) 125 (100) 128 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 122 [37 (30.33)] 120 [69 (57.50)] 122 [109 (89.34)] 122 (100) 120 (100) 122 (100) Bera Pabna 124 [39 (31.45)] 121 [62 (51.24)] 123 [111 (90.24)] 124 (100) 121 (100) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 123 [41 (33.33)] 124 [71 (57.26)] 126 [112 (88.89)] 123 (100) 124 (100) 126 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 126 [43 (34.13)] 124 [63 (50.81)] 122 [110 (90.16)] 126 (100) 124 (100) 122 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate after separating them from other species. A manual as- during the recovery period for 24 h. The percent mortality pirator was used to transfer P. argentipes sand flies to was calculated by counting the dead and alive P. argen- the holding tube which was marked with a green dot. tipes sand flies after 24 h of recovery; sand fly mortality The exposure tubes were marked with a red dot and was corrected by using Abbott’sformula ½P ¼ðPi −CÞ=ð1 Pi‐c lined with insecticide-impregnated paper. 00−CÞ 100P ¼ xd, where P is the corrected mortal- 100−c ity, Pi is the percent observed mortality in immediate ex- Test procedure posed sand flies, and C is the percent mortality in control] The tests were performed as per the World Health where control mortality should be within 5–20%. Tests Organization (WHO) recommended procedure [11, 12] were invalid in the case of control mortality exceeding with the above-mentioned insecticides. WHO test kits, 20% and those tests were repeated. The cut-off percentage insecticide-impregnated and oil treated control papers was < 20% [11]. The insecticide-impregnated papers were were obtained from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (WHO used 4 times and after use they were stored in their re- collaborating Center). Tests were performed at a spective packets. A small line was drawn in one corner of temperature and relative humidity of 28 ± 2 °C and the paper to mark the number of uses for each paper. 70–80%, respectively. For each district, we had an inde- pendent set of bioassays with an independent control Sand fly identification group. In Bangladesh, six replicates containing 20–25 fe- Female P. argentipes sand flies were sorted by their mor- male P. argentipes sand flies in each replicate were used phological characteristics prior to conducting the tests. for each insecticide and control group. In Nepal, 5 repli- All evaluated sand flies (live and dead) were identified cates were used for each insecticide together with a con- using the standard taxonomic key described by Lewis trol group. The other procedures remained the same. [13, 14] and Kalra & Bang [15]. After exposure, knockdown (KD) was recorded after the test period for each insecticide and control. The holding tubes were kept for recovery in dark and cool places im- Results mediately after exposure for the requisite period. Fresh The results in Bangladesh of the susceptibility tests per- sugar solution on cotton was given as supplementary food formed on wild populations of female P. argentipes sand Table 2 Mortality status of P. argentipes to deltamethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [28 (23.33)] 121 [53 (43.80) ] 120 [105 (87.5)] 120 (100) 121 (100) 120 (100) Madhupur Tangail 124 [32 (25.81)] 121 [55 (45.45)] 121 [107 (88.43)] 124 (100) 121 (100) 121 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [35 (29.17)] 126 [63 (50.00)] 120 [109 (90.83)] 120 (100) 126 (100) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [35 (27.78)] 122 [59 (48.36)] 120 [105 (87.5)] 126 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Terokhada Khulna 121 [42 (34.71)] 122 [66 (54.10)] 126 [112 (88.89)] 121 (100) 122 (100) 126 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 124 [39 (31.45)] 123 [57 (46.34)] 127 [114 (89.76)] 124 (100) 123 (100) 127 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 5 of 11 Table 3 Mortality status of P. argentipes to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand fly exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [23 (19.17)] 122 [51 (41.80)] 120 [108 (90.00)] 120 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Madhupur Tangail 126 [28 (22.22)] 123 [52 (42.28)] 122 [112 (91.80)] 126 (100) 123 (100) 122 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 126 [35 (27.78)] 121 [55 (45.45)] 124 [112 (90.32)] 126 (100) 121 (100) 124 (100) Bera Pabna 122 [31 (25.41)] 124 [59 (47.58)] 120 [110 (91.67)] 122 (100) 124 (100) 120 (100) Terokhada Khulna 121 [29 (24.97)] 120 [51 (42.50)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 120 (100) 122 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 123 [24 (19.51)] 126 [51 (40.48)] 126 [110 (87.30)] 123 (100) 126 (100) 126 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate flies with different insecticide-impregnated papers are results were found for 15 and 30 minutes of expos- shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The KD rate ure (Table 14). These results indicate the need for for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure to different insecti- establishing the susceptibility status of vector sand cides varied between 19.17–40.98%, 40.48–74.19% and flies for above tested (alpha-cypermethrin and delta- 81.15–96.77%, respectively. Tables 7 and 8 show that no methrin) as well as other insecticides in the pipeline KD was observed for any insecticides in any study sites for IRS in Nepal. in the control group and almost 100% of sand flies were In this study, two insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin alive 24 h post-exposure. The VL vector, P. argentipes, and deltamethrin, were used in both Bangladesh and was found susceptible to all insecticides tested in the Nepal; the tests performed, and the comparative find- study as 100% corrected mortality was observed 24 h ings are shown in Fig. 2. In Bangladesh, the mortality post-exposure (Table 9). was 100% for both insecticides for 15, 30 and 60 mi- The study results in Nepal are shown in Tables 10, nutes exposure, whilst this was the case only for 30 11, 12, 13 and 14. They show that the KD rates of minutes exposure for alpha-cypermethrin and 60 mi- alpha cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 16.22– nutes exposure for both insecticides in Nepal. In 27.27%, 77.78–83.18% and 93.20–97.27% for 15, 30 Nepal, the mortality dropped to 92.9 and 93.7 from and 60 minutes exposure, respectively. The mortality 100% for 15 minutes exposure for both insecticides rate was 100 % for 60 minutes of exposure for both and to 97.0 from 100% at 30 minutes exposure for insecticides in all three study districts but different deltamethrin. Fig. 2 Average number of Phlebotomus argentipes exposed and their corrected mortality for two common insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin tested in each study sites in Bangladesh (six study sites and six replicates in each site) and Nepal (three study sites and five replicates in each site) Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 6 of 11 Table 4 Mortality status of P. argentipes to permethrin (0.75%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 121 [26 (21.49)] 123 [64 (52.03)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 123 (100) 122 (100) Madhupur Tangail 126 [28 (22.22)] 125 [65 (52.00)] 120 [103 (85.83)] 126 (100) 125 (100) 120 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 125 [30 (24.00)] 122 [62 (50.82)] 120 [105 (87.5)] 125 (100) 122 (100) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 121 [31 (25.61)] 124 [57 (45.97)] 122 [108 (88.52)] 121 (100) 124 (100) 122 (100) Terokhada Khulna 122 [28 (22.95)] 121 [58 (47.93)] 124 [105 (84.68)] 122 (100) 121 (100) 124 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 123 [30 (24.39)] 120 [63 (52.50)] 120 [106 (88.33)] 123 (100) 120 (100) 120 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Discussion no longer binds to its target or through detoxification Insect-borne diseases remain a major public health enzyme-based resistance, which occurs when enhanced concern in resource constrained situations. About 30 levels or modified activities of esterases, oxidases, or gluta- different species of phlebotomine sand flies are re- thione S-transferases prevent the insecticide from reaching sponsible for transmitting leishmaniasis worldwide its site of action [18]. [16]. Vector control is an important element to In the present study, we did not perform assays of minimize the vector-borne disease burden in the the susceptibility of sand flies because the lethal doses countries and in fact, it heavily relies upon different of all classes of insecticides are generally similar to insecticides. The inappropriate application (overuse those for mosquitoes [19] and determined the doses and misuse) of insecticides have led to the emergence for the purpose of discriminating concentrations in of resistance, which undermines the potency of vector routine insecticide resistance monitoring. This is now control. Usually there are four possible types of insec- well established and widely adopted for the purposes ticides resistance observed, i.e. (i) increased metabol- of testing and monitoring insecticide resistance in ism to non-toxic products, (ii) decreased target site mosquitoes and other disease vectors [20]. Wild-caught P. sensitivity, (iii) decreased rates of insecticide penetra- argentipes female sand flies were used in the present study tion and (iv) increased rates of insecticide excretion, as none of the study countries have a sand fly colony. for four major classes of insecticides (organochlorines, The present study confirmed that P. argentipes sand flies organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids) [17]. in Bangladesh are susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin, del- Development of resistance is an evolutionary phenomenon tamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, malathion caused by either behavioural avoidance or physiological or and bendiocarb as 100% mortality was observed at 60 mi- biochemical factors of any targeted insects. This can be nutes of exposure. In Nepal, incipient signs of resistance tackled judiciously by implementing appropriate and development were observed: the mortality rate was below comprehensive resistance monitoring and management 90% after 15 minutes and about 95% after 30 minutes of strategies within the framework of integrated vector man- exposure to pyrethroid insecticides but 100% after 60 mi- agement. Insecticide resistance occurs when the insecticide nutes of exposure for both insecticides which is slightly Table 5 Mortality status of P. argentipes to malathion (5%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 122 [53 (43.44)] 124 [92 (74.19)] 124 [120 (96.77)] 122 (100) 124 (100) 124 (100) Madhupur Tangail 122 [50 (40.98)] 120 [87 (72.50)] 120 [112 (93.33)] 122 (100) 120 (100) 120 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [53 (44.17)] 120 [83 (69.17)] 121 [114 (94.21)] 120 (100) 120 (100) 121 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [57 (45.24)] 122 [86 (70.49)] 123 [111 (90.24)] 126 (100) 122 (100) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 125 [55 (44.00)] 126 [91 (72.22)] 122 [115 (94.26)] 125 (100) 126 (100) 122 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 121 [54 (44.63)] 126 [89 (70.63)] 124 [116 (93.55)] 121 (100) 126 (100) 124 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 7 of 11 Table 6 Mortality status of P. argentipes to bendiocarb (0.1%) in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 122 [42 (35.00)] 125 [81 (66.39)] 123 [102 (82.93)] 122 (100) 125 (100) 123 (100) Madhupur Tangail 120 [48 (39.34)] 122 [82 (67.21)] 122 [99 (81.15)] 118 (98.33) 121 (99.18) 122 (100) Pirgonj Rangpur 122 [47 (38.52)] 122 [79 (64.75)] 120 [98 (81.67)] 121 (99.18) 121 (99.18) 120 (100) Bera Pabna 126 [52 (41.27)] 120 [82 (67.21)] 123[104 (84.55)] 125 (99.21) 119 (99.17) 123 (100) Terokhada Khulna 124 [51 (41.13)] 120 [83 (68.03)] 123[101 (82.11)] 122 (98.39) 120 (100) 123 (100) Godagari Rajshahi 125 [44 (35.20)] 126 [85 (69.67)] 120 [101 (84.17)] 123 (98.4) 124 (98.41) 120 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate different (the mortality was between 96–99% for 60 mi- Continuous vector control activities with rational use of nutes for deltamethrin 0.05%) from an earlier study con- quality insecticide are essential to sustain this achievement ducted in Nepal and India [3]. Two insecticides and eliminate the disease. As mentioned before, VL was (deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin) were tested in the virtually eliminated from Bangladesh and Nepal due to both countries and the findings indicate that the P. argen- the massive use of DDT for IRS during the malaria eradi- tipes populations are on the way to developing tolerance cation era [1, 2] but reappeared in the sub-continent due against both insecticides in Nepal whereas they are still to a lack of effective vector control activities in the 100% susceptible in Bangladesh. In Nepal, pyrethroid post-eradication phase. IRS is an expensive operation so it based (alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and delta- must be carried out using appropriate insecticides to methrin) IRS has been in practice for a long time and vari- achieve the optimum results against the targeted vector. ous types of pyrethroids are in use in different years. Periodic monitoring insecticide efficacy through suscepti- Rotation of insecticide for IRS is still not foreseen in bility tests (by WHOPES suggested method) is needed to Nepal, hence it is essential to monitor the available in- have updated information on vector susceptibility to in- secticide for its efficacy to control vectors of VL. It is also secticides. IRS is an operationally challenging activity in worth mentioning that if the potential emergence of re- terms of maintaining its optimum quality. Due to poor sistance is observed, we need to go for next step (molecu- operation and relatively lower disease burden, the com- lar mechanism) of confirmation resistance test. munity acceptance of IRS is gradually decreasing in the The VL vector control programmes in Bangladesh and Indian sub-continent (personal observation of RC). A Nepal are completely dependent on insecticide-based in- study in India and Nepal identified that IRS is effective on terventions, mainly IRS using synthetic pyrethroids (delta- vector reduction when it was carried out by the research methrin, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) in team in a controlled situation but it was deficient when it human dwellings as well as in cattle sheds. Nepal reached was carried out by the National Programme [21]. the elimination target (less than one case per 10,000 Long-term irrational use of insecticide may develop toler- people at district level) for the last few years; Bangladesh ance or resistance on its targeted insects which we ob- has yet to achieve it as a few upazilas (sub-districts) are served in Nepal. The WHOPES-recommended still reporting incidence rates above the elimination target. susceptibility test kits and insecticide-impregnated paper Table 7 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 120 [0 (0)] 124 [0 (0)] 126 [0 (0)] 0 0 7 (5.56) Madhupur Tangail 122 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 8 (6.67) 0 Pirgonj Rangpur 125 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Bera Pabna 121 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Terokhada Khulna 123 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 0 0 9 (7.32) Godagari Rajshahi 124 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 0 9 (7.5) 0 Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 8 of 11 Table 8 Control mortality in olive oil: OP/CR status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) in Bangladesh Upazila District No. of sand flies exposed in 6 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) 15 30 60 15 30 60 Fulbaria Mymensingh 121 [0 (0)] 124 [0 (0)] 126 [0 (0)] 0 8 (6.45) 0 Madhupur Tangail 125 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 9 (7.5) Pirgonj Rangpur 120 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 8 (6.67) Bera Pabna 120 [0 (0)] 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Terokhada Khulna 124 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 122 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Godagari Rajshahi 123 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 121 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, OP organophosphates, CR carbamate Table 9 Susceptibility status of P. argentipes to different insecticides in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure in Bangladesh. Values without parentheses indicate observation at 15 minutes, those in parentheses - at 30 minutes and those in square brackets - at 60 minutes Insecticide District Mymensingh Tangail Rangpur Pabna Khulna Rajshahi Upazila Fulbaria Madhupur Pirganj Bera Terokhada Godagari Alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [125] 121 (125) [128] 122 (120) [122] 124 (121) [123] 123 (124) [126] 126 (124) [122] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Deltamethrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (121) [120] 124 (121) [121] 120 (126) [120] 126 (122) [120] 121 (122) [126] 124 (123) [127] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [120] 126 (123) [122] 126 (121) [124] 122 (124) [120] 121 (120) [122] 123 (126) [126] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Permethrin (0.75%) No. of exposed 121(123) [122] 126 (125) [120] 125 (122) [120] 121 (124) [122] 122 (121) [124] 123 (120) [120] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (0) [5.56] 0 (6.67) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [7.32] 0 (7.5) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Malathion (5%) No. of exposed 122 (124) [124] 122 (120) [120] 120 (120) [121] 126 (122) [123] 125 (126) [122] 121 (126) [124] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (6.45) [0] 0 (0) [7.5] 0 (0) [6.67] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Bendiocarb (0.1%) No. of exposed 120 (122) [123] 122 (125) [122] 122 (122) [120] 126 (120) [123] 124 (120) [123] 125 (126) [120] % mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (6.45) [0] 0 (0) [7.5] 0 (0) [6.67] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] 0 (0) [0] Corrected mortality 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] 100 (100) [100] Status S S S S S S Abbreviation: S susceptible Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 9 of 11 Table 10 Mortality status of P. argentipes to alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 111 [23 (20.72)] 108 [84 (77.78)] 109 [106 (97.25)] 100 (89.89) 108 (100) 109 (100) Sunsari Tanmuna 110 [30 (27.27)] 107 [89 (83.18)] 106 [100 (94.34)] 105 (95.45) 107 (100) 106 (100) Saptari West Pipara 111 [18 (16.22)] 105 [82 (78.10)] 104 [99 (95.19)] 106 (95.10) 105 (100) 104 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Table 11 Mortality status of P. argentipes to deltamethrin (0.05%) in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 114 [31 (27.19)] 103 [75 (72.82)] 110 [107 (97.27)] 107 (93.86) 99 (95.73) 110 (100) Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [21 (20.19)] 108 [88 (81.48)] 103 [96 (93.20)] 93 (89.42) 103 (95.37) 103 (100) Saptari West Pipara 114 [19 (16.67)] 108 [79 (73.15)] 109 [103 (94.50)] 109 (95.48) 108 (100) 109 (100) Abbreviation: KD knockdown rate Table 12 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) for alpha-cypermethrin in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Exposure time (min) Exposure time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 102 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 117 [0 (0)] 2 (1.96) 2 (1.92) 6 (5.13) Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 107 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Saptari West Pipara 112 [0 (0)] 103 [0 (0)] 115 [0 (0)] 9 (8.04) 2 (1.94) 10 (8.70) Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Table 13 Control mortality in silicon oil: PY status of P. argentipes in the WHO tube test (five replicates for each observation) for deltamethrin in Nepal District Village No. of sand flies exposed in 5 replicates [KD (%)] No. of sand flies dead at 24 h (%) Development Observation time (min) Observation time (min) Committee 15 30 60 15 30 60 Morang Bhathigachh 102 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 120 [0 (0)] 0 10 (9.09) 0 Sunsari Tanmuna 104 [0 (0)] 100 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 0 0 0 Saptari West Pipara 104 [0 (0)] 104 [0 (0)] 110 [0 (0)] 3 (2.88) 4 (3.85) 5 (4.55) Abbreviations: KD knockdown rate, PY pyrethroid Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 10 of 11 Table 14 Susceptibility status of P. argentipes to different insecticides in the WHO tube test (six replicates for each observation) for 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure in Nepal. Values without parentheses indicate observation at 15 minutes, those in parentheses - at 30 minutes and those in square brackets - at 60 minutes Insecticide District Morang Sunsari Saptari Village development committee Bhathigachh Tanmuna West Pipara Alpha-cypermethrin (0.05%) No. exposed 111 (108) [109] 110 (107) [106] 111 (105) [104] % mortality 90.09 (100) [100] 95.45 (100) [100] 95.50 (100) [100] % control mortality 1.96 (1.92) [5.13] 0 (0) [0] 8.04 (1.94) [8.70] Corrected mortality 89.89 (100) [100] 95.45 (100) [100] 95.10 (100) [100] Status S? S S Deltamethrin (0.05%) No. exposed 114 (103) [110] 104 (108) [103] 114 (108) [109] % mortality 93.86 (96.12) [100] 89.42 (95.37) [100] 95.61 (100) [100] % control mortality 0 (9.09) [0] 0 (0) [0] 2.88 (3.85) [4.55] Corrected mortality 93.86 (95.73) [100] 89.42 (95.37) [100] 95.48 (100) [100] Status S S? S Abbreviations: S susceptible are only available at Universiti Sains Malaysia and to ob- Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge Nurul Alam, Muzahidul Islam, Beauti Akter and tain them in time is difficult which affects the planned ac- Shahidullah in Bangladesh and Shashi Majhi, Manish Karn, Satyanarayan tivity so WHO may come forward to find out the solution. Bhagat and Kailash Majhi in Nepal for their field assistance in conducting the In the case of Bangladesh, the chance of cross-resistance study. The authors are also thankful to the UHFPOs and HI in-charge of Ful- baria, Madhupur, Pirgonj, Bera, Terokhada and Godagari upazilas and their is very unlikely as there were virtually no vector control staff in Bangladesh and District Public Health Officers and vector control offi- activities for a long time (1997–2012) [4, 22]. Limited cers of Morang, Sunsari and Saptari districts in Nepal, for providing the infor- scale IRS was conducted in 2012 using deltamethrin 5WP mation on kala-azar and assistance in conducting the study. We highly acknowledge M Mamun Huda and Md. Sahidul Islam for their comments in Bangladesh and since then it has continued, usually and critical review. The study was supported by the Special Programme for with two rounds of spraying. While IRS has been carried Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health out in Nepal using synthetic pyrethroids for a long time as Organization (WHO). In Bangladesh, susceptibility kits, insecticide- impregnated and control papers were provided by the NTD Department of part of VL vector control activities, the current study did WHO. not evaluate the cross-resistance as a fully susceptible ref- erence strain of P. argentipes was not available. Funding The study was funded by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. Conclusions In conclusion, it is recommended that the national con- Availability of data and materials The data supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the trol programme in Bangladesh and Nepal can use article. alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, malathion and bendiocarb for VL vector con- Authors’ contributions trol. In Nepal, however, deltamethrin or alpha-cypermethrin RC, MLD, DA and AK drafted the manuscript. RC, MLD, VC, NPM and AK conceived and designed the study. LR, SF, JP, SA and RKK collected the data. should be used judiciously. In both cases, insecticide rota- RC, MLD and VC monitored the study activities. VC performed overall data tion should be performed to mitigate the possible develop- analysis. RC, MLD, NPM, DA and AK acquired funding for the study. All ment of insecticide resistance. Periodic susceptibility tests authors read and approved the final manuscript except NPM. should be performed by the countries to get timely alerts Ethics approval and consent to participate regarding insecticide resistance. The study proposal was approved by the Bangladesh Medical Research Council (BMRC) and in Nepal by the BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) Institutional Review Committee and Nepal Health Research Council Abbreviations (NHRC). Prior to funding, the proposal was reviewed by the Special BMRC: Bangladesh Medical Research Council; BPKIHS: BP Koirala Institute of Programme for Tropical Diseases Research and Training (TDR) at the World Health Sciences; DDT: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; IRS: Indoor residual Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. Prior permission was spraying; IVM: Integrated vector management; KD: Knockdown; obtained from household head of residences for the collection of sand flies. MoU: Memorandum of understanding; OP/CR: Organophosphate/carbamate; PY: Pyrethroid; VL: Visceral leishmanisis; WHO: World Health Organization; WHOPES: World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme; Competing interests WP: Wettable powder The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Chowdhury et al. Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:336 Page 11 of 11 Publisher’sNote 18. Brogdon WG, McAllister JC. Insecticide resistance and vector control. J Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in Agromedicine. 2004;9:329–45. published maps and institutional affiliations. 19. World Health Organization. Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance (6th edition). 2006. Author details Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, WHO Pesticide International Centre for Diarrhoea Disease Research (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, evaluation scheme (WHOPES). http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/ Bangladesh. National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (NIPSOM), 69795/1/WHO_CDS_NTD_WHOPES_GCDPP_2006.1_eng.pdf; Accessed 25 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, July 2017. Dharan 56700, Nepal. Dhaka College, New Market, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh. 20. World Health Organization. Test procedures for insecticide resistance Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes (2nd edition). Global Malaria Bangladesh. World Health Organization (WHO), 1211, 27 Geneva, Programme. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/ Switzerland. Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical bitstream/10665/250677/1/9789241511575-eng.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2017 Diseases, World Health Organization, 1211, 27 Geneva, Switzerland. Centre 21. Chowdhury R, Huda MM, Kumar V, Das P, Joshi AB, Banjara MR, et al. The for Medicine and Society/Anthropology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Indian and Nepalese programmes of indoor residual spraying for the Germany. elimination of visceral leishmaniasis: performance and effectiveness. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105:31–5. Received: 1 December 2017 Accepted: 23 May 2018 22. Mondal D, Alam MS, Karim Z, Haque R, Boelaert M, Kroeger A. Present situation of vector control in Bangladesh: a wake up call. Health Policy. 2008;87:369–76. References 1. Bern C, Chowdhury R. The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh and prospects for improved control. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123: 275–88. 2. Rahman M. Insecticide substitutes for DDT to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2064–9. 3. Dinesh DS, Das ML, Picado A, Roy L, Rijal S, Singh SP, et al. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in visceral leishmaniasis endemic districts in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e859. 4. Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Chowdhury V, Faria S, Alvar J, Nabi SG, et al. How far are we from visceral leishmaniasis elimination in Bangladesh? An assessment of epidemiological surveillance data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8: e3020. 5. Annual Report of Department of Health Services 2072/73 (2015/2016). Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal; 2016. 6. World Health Organization. Regional strategic framework for elimination of kala-azar from South East Asia region (2005–2015). New Delhi: SEA-VBC-85- REV-1; 2005. 7. WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia. Report of the sixty-seventh session, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2014 September 9–12. New Delhi: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2014. p. 1–149. 8. Zijlstra EE, Alves F, Rijal S, Arana B, Alvar J. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: a threat to the South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11: e0005877. 9. Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD). The annual internal assessment of Malaria and Kala-azar control activities 1999. Department of Health Services. Epidemiology and Disease Control Division and Vector Borne Disease Research and Training Centre. Ministry of Health, HMG/N, Nepal; 2000. 10. Lal BK. Meeting to update National Strategic Guideline on Kala-azar Elimination Program in Nepal, 8–9 January 2018. Kathmandu; 2018. 11. World Health Organization. Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adults blackflies, sandflies and biting midges to insecticides. VBC/81.810. Geneva: WHO; 1981. 12. World Health Organization. Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces, Report of the WHO Informal Consultation. WHO/CDS/ CPC/MAL/98.12. Geneva: WHO; 1998. 13. Lewis DJ. The phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of oriental region. Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist) Entomol. 1978;37:217–343. 14. Lewis DJ. A taxonomic review of the genus phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist). 1982;45:121–209. 15. Kalra NL, Bang YH. Manual on entomology in visceral leishmaniasis. Document SEA/VBC/35. New Delhi: World Health Organization; 1998. 16. Bailey MS, Lockwood DN. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Dermatol. 2007; 25:203–11. 17. World Health Organization. Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanism (Field and laboratory manual); World Health Organization, Department of Disease Prevention & Control, WHO Communicable Diseases (CDS); WHO/CDS/CPCIMALl98.6; 1998. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/ 10665/83780/1/WHO_CDS_CPC_MAL_98.6.pdf; Accessed 14 Aug 2017.

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