1063-0740/02/2804- $27.00 © 2002
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2002, pp. 259–262.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2002 by Biologiya Morya, Buzoleva, Terekhova.
belong to agents causing saprozo-
onoses and demonstrate dual (both saprophytic and
parasitic) patterns; they can exist in homoeothermic
and poikilothermic organisms, plant objects, as well as
in soil and water environments. A wide range of eco-
logical tolerance is characteristic of these species; i.e.,
the capability of surviving in different conditions.
There is a lot of data about the continuous survival and
reproduction of pathogenic bacteria in land ecosystems
[2, 8, 20], but the literature data about the viability of
in water are scarce and contradic-
tory [1, 6, 9]. The problem is obviously worth studying,
because numerous outbreaks of listeriosis caused by
the use of infected marine food sources have been reg-
istered in many countries in Europe and America since
the late 1980s [12, 15, 16].
It is known that sowing
from marine hydro-
bionts is rather high and is 10–18% [13, 17, 18]. Some
, are also known to be
isolated from marine and river ﬁsh [5, 10]. We suggest
that the pathogenic bacteria enter the marine environ-
ment from ﬂood and soil runoff that washes the bacteria
out of coastal soils, as well as with sewage and river
runoff. In this case, it is not improbable that
could survive long enough in sea and river
water; however, it is still not known under what circum-
stances these bacteria reproduce. Therefore, the target
of this study is to determine the longevity of these bac-
teria and to reveal the possibility of the reproduction in
and sea water at different temperatures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We used the following strains of
: 2 M, 10 CN, no. 546, K, P, A, and 1-A (1/2 a
serotype) obtained from the Museum of VGNKI of Vet-
erinary Preparations, Moscow, and the following
: H-557, 512,
3515, 907; H-2781, 282, and 158 (I serotype) obtained
from the Museum of VTSIP NII EM SO RAMN, Vladi-
vostok. These strains have typical cultural, serological,
and biochemical properties.
The water samples were taken in October 100 m
from the coastline of Shamora Bay (Peter the Great
Bay, Sea of Japan), and also 100 m from the mouth of
the Chistaya River, which enters the same bay.
The sea and river water was sterilized using a
method of ﬁltration through a cotton batting ﬁlter with
subsequent pasteurization of the water three times at
C for 20 min each in a water bath every 24 h .
The infective dose, chosen by a standard of turbidity
(1000 cells for 0.1 ml of inoculated medium for unster-
ilized water and 100 cells for 0.1 ml of medium for ster-
ile water), was introduced into the sea and river water.
The survival of different strains of
was studied in sterile and unsterilized samples of sea-
and river water at 6–8 and 20–25
To calculate colony-forming units (CFU) of the bac-
teria that survived in the water, 0.1 ml of inoculated
water was added at certain periods to Petri dishes with
either Serov’s medium (for
) or onto a yeast
agar with an admixture of nalidixic acid and trypaﬂa-
Survivorship of Different Strains of the Bacteria
in Sea and River Water
L. S. Buzoleva and V. E. Terekhova
Scientiﬁc Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Vladivostok,
Received January 31, 2002
—It has been shown that the survival capabilities of the bacteria
in water environments is different depending upon the strain of the bacteria. When entering
sea or river water, the pathogenic bacteria must withstand keen competition against numerous saprophytic
microﬂora. It is found that different strains of
adapted to low positive temperatures can
reproduce in non-sterile sea and river water under low positive temperatures and remain there for long periods
, psychrophylity, temperature, survival, sea
and river water.