ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2009, Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1247–1255. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2009.
Original Russian Text © G.I. El’chinova, I.G. Terekhovskaya, A.A. Osetrova, O.A. Poryadina, R.A. Zinchenko, 2009, published in Genetika, 2009, Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1411–1419.
One of the main advantages of surname as a classic
quasi-genetic marker used in population genetic studies
 is the possibility to describe the population genetic
structures of large areas with relatively small expenses.
Therefore, along with the use of new molecular genetic
markers and the traditionally used biochemical ones,
analysis of the surname structure of regional popula-
tions where surnames have been traditionally used for a
long time and are inherited patroclinously (in the pater-
nal line) remains an important method. This publication
is the ﬁrst in a series describing studies on the popula-
tion genetic structure of Kirov oblast (region) based on
surname distribution. The reported data on the surname
structure and random inbreeding values are necessary
for analysis of the load of hereditary diseases in the
region studied and its mathematical simulation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Kirov oblast was established on December 5, 1936.
It is located in northeastern European Russia. Its area is
; the population is 1461300 people, includ-
ing 1058600 urban and 402700 rural inhabitants. The
population density is 12.8 people/km
. The population
is mostly Russian (91.8%), Mari (2.6%), Tatar (2.2%),
and Udmurt (1.4%). The city of Kirov is the administra-
tive center of Kirov oblast. It is situated on the left, high
bank of the Vyatka River 900 km away from Moscow.
The city was founded in 1347 and was originally called
Vyatka. From the 15th century to 1780, the name of the
city was Khlynov, then it was renamed Vyatka. The cur-
rent name was given to the city in 1934 . The Vytka
region has a long history. People began populate it in
ancient times, probably, as early as Upper Paleolithic
era (50000–15000 years ago). The region has archeo-
logical sites of Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze ages.
The Iron Age began in the Vyatka basin in the seventh
century BC. The early Iron Age is represented here by
artifacts of the Anan’ino culture. The Anan’ino people
belonged to a Finno-Ugric ethnic group. They are
assumed to be the Tissagets mentioned by the ancient
Greek historian Herodotus, who located them northeast
of Scythians and Sarmatians. Numerous monuments of
this culture are known in the low and middle Vyatka
basin and along Vyatka tributaries: the Nogovitsynskoe
(Kirov), Pizhemskoe (near the town of Sovetsk), Krivo-
borskoe (near the village of Prosnitsa), and other sites.
Complex ethnic processes occurred in the Vyatka basin
in the second half of the ﬁrst millennium AD. Udmurt
tribes were being formed in the eastern part of the
basin; Mari tribes, in its western part; and Komi tribes,
in the north of this region. These tribes were formed on
the basis of the Finno-Ugric linguistic community .
First Russians appeared in the Vyatka basin in the
late 12th and early 13th centuries; they settled on
vacant lands among Udmurts and Mari. In the second
half of the 13th century, the ﬂow of Russians to the
Vyatka basin increased because of the Mongol–Tatar
invasion. Ancient Russian settlements have been found
on the Vyatka River between Kotel’nich and Slobod-
skii; these are Kotel’nichskoe, Kovrovskoe, Orlovskoe,
Nikulitskoe, Khlynovskoe, and other archeological
sites. Most immigrants to the Vyatka basin came from
the Novgorod, Ustyug, Suzdal, and Nizhni Novgorod
lands. The city of Vyatka was ﬁrst mentioned in chron-
icles under the year 1374, in connection with the cam-
paign of Novgorodian ushkuiniks (river pirates) against
Volga Bulgaria, then part of the Golden Horde. In the
Surname Distribution and Random Inbreeding in Kirov Oblast
G. I. El’chinova
, I. G. Terekhovskaya
, A. A. Osetrova
O. A. Poryadina
, and R. A. Zinchenko
Medical Genetic Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 115478 Russia;
Kirov Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, Kirov, 610050 Russia;
Received November 12, 2008
—Data on surname distribution in 24 raions of Kirov oblast with a total adult population of more than
785000 people were used to calculate the random inbreeding values for populations of the district and rural
municipality levels and analyze the geographic distributions of these values. The data have been compared with
the results of studies carried out in the 1980s.