ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2006, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 284!287. + Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text + E. S. Averina, I. A. Gritskova, V. A. Vasnev, L. D. Radnaeva, G. A. Simakova, 2006, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2006, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 284!287.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Surfactant Properties of Hydroxyethylated Fats
E. S. Averina, I. A. Gritskova, V. A. Vasnev, L. D. Radnaeva, and G. A. Simakova
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, Buryatia, Russia
Lomonosov State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia
Buryat State University, Ulan-Ude, Buryatia, Russia
Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Received June 29, 2005
Abstract-Surfactant properties of hydroxyethylated fats were studied.
There are obvious advantages of polymeric micro-
spheres as bioligand carriers over particles of the bio-
logical origin (bacteria, erythrocytes, etc.). The pri-
mary advantage is in the possibility of obtaining
monodisperse polymer suspensions with a fixed par-
ticle size of polymeric microspheres having surface
sites capable of covalent binding to functional groups
of the bioligand.
Monodisperse polymeric suspensions are prepared
by various methods of heterophase polymerization in
the presence of initiators and surfactants. In this case,
the stability of the particles with respect to coales-
cence in the course of polymerization is provided by
the structural-mechanical and electrostatic factors.
The polymerization is commonly initiated with
potassium persulfate. The presence of ionic fragments
of the initiator at the ends of polymeric chains pro-
motes their orientation at the interface with the forma-
tion of an electric double layer. To form the structural-
mechanical factor of stabilization of the particles in
the interfacial layer, surfactants insoluble in water and
incompatible with the resulting polymer are used.
These are carboxyl-containing  and organosilicon
[1, 2] surfactants, oligoglycol maleates, etc. . It may
be suggested that modified fats of taiga mink (TM),
fox (TF), and sea mammals are classified with this
type of fats. The last type has already found wide use
in various areas of research and in chemical, pharma-
ceutical, and cosmetic industries. At the same time,
the fat of Baikal seal (BS), which is a by-product,
obtained in seal-fishing is virtually not used anywhere.
In this study, we examined properties of surfactants
synthesized on the basis of hydroxyethylated fats of
TM, TF, and BS. The resulting products were used
in heterophase polymerization of styrene to prepare
monodisperse polymer suspensions.
The composition of fats was determined using
a Hewlett3Packard 5890-2 gas chromatograph with
an HP-5971 mass-spectrometric quadrupole detector.
It was demonstrated that BS fat differs from TM
and TF fats in a higher content of unsaturated acids
Table 1. Composition of BS, TM, and TF fats
Parameter ³ TM ³ TF ³ BS
Acid number ³ 1.3 ³ 2.0 ³ 0.6
Iodine number ³ 78 ³ 70 ³ 145
Composition of ³³³
fatty acids, wt %: ³³³
³ 4.1 ³ 4.4 ³ 7.1
³ 94.4 ³ 95.6 ³ 69.7
³ 0.5 ³³23.2
Content of acids, ³³³
wt %: ³³³
saturated ³ 31.2 ³ 34.1 ³ 15.5
monounsaturated³ 59.4 ³ 53.9 ³ 54.5
polyunsaturated ³ 7.0 ³ 9.4 ³ 30.0
Degree of ³ 6(TM-6) ³ 6(TF-6) ³13(PEG-600)
tion of ³³³12(MPEG-550)
modified fats ³³³42(MPEG-1900)