ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 5, pp. 757!760. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + V.Z. Kuz’min, I.I. Safarova, T.M. Prokudina, V.A. Shepelin, R.R. Sharifullin, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii,
2007, Vol. 80, No. 5, pp. 778!781.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Surface Activity of Oxyethylated Alkylphenols
V. Z. Kuz’min, I. I. Safarova, T. M. Prokudina,
V. A. Shepelin, and R. R. Sharifullin
Nizhnekamskneftekhim Joint-Stock Company, Nizhnekamsk, Tatarstan, Russia
Received June 13, 2006; in final form, January 2007
Abstract-Pilot samples of oxyethylated products derived from octylphenol, isononylphenol, and isododecyl-
phenol were synthesized. Their colloidal characteristics were studied and compared with the characteristics of
ethoxylates of higher aliphatic alcohols.
Surfactants are widely used in many modern proc-
esses and materials. The assortment of natural and
synthetic surfactants is very wide. With respect to
the characteristics, structure, and composition, the
most diverse are nonionic surfactants, whose share
in the whole commercial production of surfactants
reaches 20% .
Oxyethylated isononylphenols, Neonols, produced
by the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Joint-Stock Company
are nonionic surfactants. Oxyethylated isononyl-
phenols are mixtures of oligomers-homologs, whose
average degree of oxyethylation can vary in a wide
range. The fields of application of Neonols are the
same as those for oxyethylated aliphatic alcohols, but
they are more widely used for technical purposes.
Being adsorbed at the phase boundary, surfactants
play a significant role in wetting, dispersion, emulsifi-
cation, foaming, and other phenomena.
One of the main characteristics of surfactant per-
formance is surface tension s. There are numerous
data on surface and interfacial tension of aqueous sur-
factant solutions, showing that the structure of sur-
factant molecule significantly affects its ability to de-
crease the interfacial tension. The other important
characteristic of the surfactant performance is the
critical micellization concentration C
, i.e., con-
centration at which micelles are formed, causing
abrupt changes in other characteristics of surfactant.
value corresponds to the minimum surface
tension. For homologous series of surfactants it was
established that, the lower C
, the more efficient is
the surfactant .
The study of the surface tension of aqueous solu-
tions of oxyethylated primary aliphatic alcohols as
an example showed  that an increase of the length
of alkyl chain increases the surface tension. With
respect to decreasing surface tension, a branched alkyl
group is more preferable than a linear radical. The
general regularity of decreasing surface activity with
increasing number of oxyethyl groups was elucidated.
The individual values of surface tension for some
samples of oxyethylated octylphenols and nonyl-
phenols were determined. The influence of the hydro-
carbon radical and the length of the polyoxyethylene
chain of polyglycol ethers of alkylphenols was studied
in [3, 4] for alkylphenols with CH
, and C
radicals having normal hydro-
carbon chains and degree of oxyethylation from 2
This study was aimed to compare of colloidal-
chemical characteristics of commercial Neonols pro-
duced by the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Joint-Stock
Company and specially synthesized pilot samples of
oxyethylated isononylphenols with degree of oxy-
ethylation higher than 12 and also oxyethylated prod-
ucts derived from oxyphenol and isododecylphenol
(alkylphenol derived from propylene tetramers).
Alkylphenols were synthesized on a laboratory
installation for alkylation of phenol at 110oC using
two- or threefold molar excess of phenol in the pres-
ence of Lewatit SPC-108 HG sulfonated ion-exchange
resin as a catalyst. a-Olefins C
and trimers and
tetramers of propylene produced by the Nizhnekamsk-
neftekhim Joint-Stock Company were used as alkylat-
ing agents. These products were suited to the require-