1063-7397/01/3003- $25.00 © 2001 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”
Russian Microelectronics, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2001, pp. 173–174. Translated from Mikroelektronika, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2001, pp. 203–204.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001by Yur’ev, Kalinushkin.
As was reported [1, 2], CZ Si : B single crystals with
a resistivity ranging between 1 and 20
cm may have
extended (50- to 200-
m) inhomogeneities. They were
detected by the SEM EBIC method and small-angle
scattering of mid-IR radiation [3, 4]. Upon classifying
defects revealed in CZ Si : B single crystals by the latter
method, these objects were named “superlarge defects”
[1, 2]. Their micrographs obtained by scanning laser
microscopy in the basic (optical microscope) mode and
in the mode of scattering of optical-beam-induced IR
radiation [4–8] and also by the EBIC method are shown
in Fig. 1.
These defects are very rarely encountered in com-
mercial silicon wafers. Nevertheless, they are occasion-
ally revealed both in the domestic material and in
wafers produced abroad. It is obvious that such large
and active defects may drastically decrease the solar
sell efﬁciency and make electronic systems totally
Taking into account the size, shape, and fundamen-
tal importance of these defects, we reason that they are
so-called pinholes, which are a well-known feature of
CZ-grown silicon single crystals.
Note also that scanning laser mid-IR microscopy
effectively detects such defects in both operating
Superlarge Defects in CZ Si : B Single Crystals
V. A. Yur’ev* and V. P. Kalinushkin**
* Natural Science Center, Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 117942 Russia
** Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 117942 Russia
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Received February 11, 2000
—Superlarge defects in CZ Si : B single crystals were visualized by scanning laser mid-IR micros-
copy. Previously, these defects were revealed in similar single crystals with the use of an SEM operating in the
electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) mode and by small-angle scattering of mid-IR radiation.
Superlarge defects in CZ Si : B. Micrographs obtained from the same 1
1-mm region of the CZ Si : B wafer with the scan-
ning laser mid-IR microscope operating in the (a) basic mode of light scattering and (b) in the mode of scattering of optical-beam-
induced IR radiation; (c) micrograph obtained from another wafer of the same ingot with the EBIC method.