Background: Although cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the ovary have been previously documented, we report the first case of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the ovary. Case presentation: A 45-year-old woman with a two-year history of ovarian endometriosis confirmed by ultrasound underwent oophorectomy. On microscopic examination, a focus of malignant stratified epithelium, initially interpreted as transitional cell carcinoma, was identified within the endometriotic cyst wall. Examination of the hysterectomy specimen revealed superficially invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix. In addition, two triploid, CD45-negative cells were detected during the analysis of the peripheral blood for circulating tumor cells (CTC). High-risk HPV was detected on the sections of endometriosis containing cancerous area by using hybrid capture 2 assay, supporting the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma originating from the uterine cervix. Conclusion: This is the first report of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the ovary. Such finding could be misdiagnosed as primary ovarian transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma originating from metaplastic epithelium within endometriosis, or squamous cell carcinoma arising in a teratoma. Keywords: Uterine cervix, Superficial invasive squamous cell carcinoma, Ovarian metastasis, Ovary, Endometriosis Background an incidental metastatic cervical superficial squamous Ovarian metastases from cervical squamous cell carcin- cell carcinoma to the ovarian endometriosis. oma (SCCA) are rare. They account for less than 1% of metastatic tumors in the ovary and typically occur in ad- Case presentation vanced stage cervical carcinoma. Only rare cases of ovar- A 45-year-old woman presented for a routine physical ian metastasis from superficially invasive SCCA have examination. Her pelvic ultrasound revealed a 4.2 cm left been documented in the English literature [1–5]. To our ovarian cyst. Initially, the lesion was managed conserva- knowledge, no cases of SCCA metastases to the ovary tively with observation. Over the next 2 years, the patient involving structures other than native ovarian tissue remained free of symptoms; however, her ovarian cyst have been previously documented. We report a case of doubled in size measuring 8.1 cm by ultrasound. A laparo- scopic left oophorectomy was ultimately performed. * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com Department of Pathology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical Pathologic findings University, Guangzhou 510150, People’s Republic of China Intraoperative pathologic evaluation revealed dark red Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, cyst wall fragments, 7 cm in aggregate, and an unre- Dallas, TX 75390, USA Full list of author information is available at the end of the article markable fallopian tube (Fig. 1a). The frozen section © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Zhang et al. Journal of Ovarian Research (2018) 11:44 Page 2 of 5 Fig. 1 Gross and microscopic findings in the right ovarian cyst during intraoperative consultation. a Gross examination showed fragments of the hemorrhagic cyst wall. b Microscopic section demonstrated endometriosis (H&E, × 100) diagnosis was ovarian endometriosis (Fig. 1b), confirmed from two large regional medical centers, both of by evaluation of permanent sections. Among multiple which agreed with the original diagnosis. additional permanent sections, several sections demon- Total hysterectomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy strated atypical stratified epithelium in the subepithelial with pelvic lymph node dissection and omentectomy stroma within the cystic wall. The atypical cells had were performed. Grossly, the uterus, cervix, right ovary large, hyperchromatic nuclei, irregular nuclear contours, and fallopian tube were unremarkable (Fig. 4a). Micro- prominent nucleoli, scant cytoplasm, and numerous mi- scopically, the right ovary, right fallopian tube, and other toses, consistent with malignant cells (Fig. 2a-c). The specimens revealed no evidence of malignancy. Interest- total size of malignant epithelium was approximately ingly, representative sections of the cervix revealed 15 mm. The remainder of the specimen was entirely high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Even- submitted for microscopic examination and demon- tually the cervix was entirely submitted for microscopic strated ovarian tissue with endometriosis and an unre- examination. Additional cervical sections demonstrated markable fallopian tube. No evidence of teratoma was HSIL with focal superficially invasive squamous cell car- identified. cinoma. The depth of invasion was 4.0 mm and a hori- By immunohistochemistry (IHC), the malignant cells zontal extent was 6.0 mm involving only one of total 12 were diffusely positive for CK7, CK5/6, p63, and p16, sections of the cervix. No lymphovascular invasion was and negative for CK20, WT1, GATA3, ER, and PR. p53 identified. Examination of the right ovary revealed no demonstrated wild-type staining pattern. Ki67 prolifera- evidence of teratoma. The FIGO tumor stage was IA2 tion index was approximately 50%. (Fig. 3a-h). (Fig. 4b-c). Prior to hysterectomy, testing for high-risk Based on the morphologic features and immunohis- HPV was performed on the cervical cytology specimen tochemical stain findings, the case was diagnosed as by hybrid capture2 (HC2) method (Qiagen Inc., USA), ovarian transitional cell carcinoma-like high-grade ser- and was positive (935 RLU; reference range: < 1.00RLU). ous carcinoma. A differential diagnosis of metastatic The original diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma-like urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract was enter- high-grade serous carcinoma was questioned. To correlate tained; however, no lesions were identified in the the findings in the ovary and cervix, DNA extraction was urinary tract by ultrasound or computerized tomog- performed from the ovarian sections with carcinoma. raphy (CT) scan. To rule out squamous cell carcin- The DNA extraction and purification was performed oma arising from teratoma, the entire specimen was according to the manufacturer’sinstructions using examined. No evidence of teratoma was identified. GenElute™ FFPE DNA Purification Kit (MilliporeSigma, The patient sought external pathology consultations Burlington, USA). Testing for high-risk HPV was Fig. 2 Carcinoma within endometriotic cyst wall. a Malignant epithelium lining the cyst wall and forming nests in the subepithelial stroma (H&E, × 40); b, c Malignant cells demonstrate large, hyperchromatic nuclei with irregular nuclear contours, prominent nucleoli, scant cytoplasm, and increased mitoses (H&E, B:× 100; C × 200) Zhang et al. Journal of Ovarian Research (2018) 11:44 Page 3 of 5 Fig. 3 Immunohistochemical stains in the malignant epithelium. a Positive CK7; b Negative CK20; c Positive p63; d Positive CK5/6; e Positive p16; f Negative WT1; g p53 demonstrates wild-type staining pattern; h Ki67 proliferative index is approximately 50% (IHC, × 100) performed by HC2 method was positive (141.3 RLU; The final diagnosis was metastatic cervical squamous reference range: < 1.00 RLU). cell carcinoma involving ovarian endometriosis. To further support the diagnosis of metastatic carcin- oma, analysis of the patient’s peripheral blood for Discussion circulating tumor cells (CTC) was performed. Several Ovarian metastases from cervical carcinoma occur in malignant, triploid, CD45-negative epithelial cells were 5.3–8.2% cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and identified, suggestive of the presence of carcinoma cells 0.4–1.3% of squamous cell carcinoma [2, 6, 7]. The in the peripheral blood (Fig. 4d). possible routes of cervical cancer spread to the ovary Fig. 4 Uterine cervix with HSIL with focal superficially invasive squamous carcinoma. a Gross examination of the uterus demonstrated no abnormalities; b, c Sections of the cervix demonstrated HSIL with focal superficially invasive squamous carcinoma (H&E, × 100). d Analysis of the peripheral blood for circulating tumor cells detected two triploid CD45-negative malignant cells by FISH (× 400) Zhang et al. Journal of Ovarian Research (2018) 11:44 Page 4 of 5 include direct extension, lymphatic and hematogenous cancer. A high index of suspicion is necessary to avoid a spread, and trans-tubal migration. A few factors increase misdiagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma, high-grade the risk for ovarian metastases. These include two inde- serous carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, or pendent factors, cancer type (adenocarcinoma greater squamous cell carcinoma arising from teratoma. Testing than squamous cell carcinoma) and involvement of the for high-risk HPV is helpful in establishing the correct uterine corpus. Additional factors increasing metastatic diagnosis. potential are vaginal involvement, lymphovascular inva- Abbreviations sion and lymph node metastases [6, 8]. CT: Computed tomography; CTC: Circulating tumor cells; FFPE: Formalin Ovarian involvement is directly related to the stage of fixed paraffin embedded; FIGO: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; H&E: Hematoxylin-eosin; HC2: Hybrid Capture 2; HPV: Human cervical carcinoma. It ranges from 0.22% for stage IB papillomavirus; HSIL: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; squamous cell carcinoma to 9.8% for stage IIB adenocar- IHC: Immunohistochemistry; LEEP: Loop electrosurgical excisional procedure; cinoma [2, 9, 10]. Stage IA carcinomas metastasize to SCC: Squamous cell carcinoma; US: Ultrasound the ovaries rarely, with only a few reports in the litera- Funding ture . Young et al. reported a case of squamous cell This study was supported by a Scientific Research Grant from the Guangdong carcinoma in situ with right ovarian surface involvement Science and Technology Department (No.8001201707010425) and Third affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (No.8002110201701). . But, the majority of reported cases describe advanced stage carcinomas involving the ovary after the Availability of data and materials diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was previously estab- The data used or analyzed are all in this published article. lished in cervical LEEP or cold knife cone excision Authors’ contributions specimens. In our patient, the ovarian metastasis was an QJ conceptualized the case and drafted the manuscript. EL revised the incidental finding. This case illustrates the importance of manuscript. MZ, HX and SL performed assays and formal analysis. WZ revised the manuscript. KM edited the manuscript. All authors read and cervical cancer screening regardless of the presence of approved the final manuscript. symptoms. An additional, interesting finding was the involvement Ethics approval and consent to participate All experiments were performed in strict accordance with the Ethics of the endometriotic cyst wall by carcinoma with sparing Committee at Third affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. of the normal ovarian parenchyma. To our knowledge, The Institutional Committee of Third affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou this is the first documented case describing this unusual Medical University approved the use of all samples. pattern of metastasis. The metastatic focus was very Consent for publication small and could be potentially overlooked. It was not Authors in the article are all agreed to the submission of this article for visible on gross examination due to its small size, ob- publication. scuring hemorrhage and discoloration due to endometri- Competing interests osis. In our case, the frozen section did not contain the The authors declare that they have no competing interests. metastasis. In addition, due to the rarity of squamous cell carcinoma metastases to the ovary and the overlap- Publisher’sNote ping immunostaining pattern (strong positivity for p16 Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published and CK7), the tumor was initially misclassified as maps and institutional affiliations. primary ovarian transitional cell-like high-grade serous Author details carcinoma [13–17]. The diagnosis of metastatic squa- Department of Pathology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical mous cell carcinoma was eventually established with the University, Guangzhou 510150, People’s Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated aid of the high-risk HPV test, which was positive in both Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510150, China. the cervical and ovarian carcinoma. Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Conclusion This is the first report of microinvasive cervical squa- Received: 28 November 2017 Accepted: 20 May 2018 mous cell carcinoma with a metastasis involving exclu- sively an ovarian endometriotic cyst wall. In the absence References of a prior abnormal cervical screening history and any 1. 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Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 between SCCA and other types of primary ovarian cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability Zhang et al. Journal of Ovarian Research (2018) 11:44 Page 5 of 5 of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1835. 5. Ramalingam P, Malpica A, Deavers MT. Mixed endocervical adenocarcinoma and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix with ovarian metastasis of the former component: a report of 2 cases. International journal of gynecological pathology official journal of the International Society of Gynecological. Pathologists. 2012;31:490. 6. Yamamoto R, Okamoto K, Yukiharu T, Kaneuchi M, Negishi H, Sakuragi N, Fujimoto S. A study of risk factors for ovarian metastases in stage IB–IIIB cervical carcinoma and analysis of ovarian function after a transposition. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;82:312. 7. Nakanishi T, Wakai K, Ishikawa H, Nawa A, Suzuki Y, Nakamura S, Kuzuya K. A comparison of ovarian metastasis between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;82:504. 8. Kim M, Chung HH, Kim JW, Park N, Song Y, Kang S. Uterine corpus involvement as well as histologic type is an independent predictor of ovarian metastasis in uterine cervical cancer. J Gynecol Oncol. 2008;19:181. 9. Belinson JL, Mcclure M, Badger G. Randomized trial of megestrol acetate vs. megestrol acetate/tamoxifen for the management of progressive or recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1987;28:151. 10. Abe A, Furuta R, Takazawa Y, Kondo E, Umayahara K, Takeshima N. A Case of Ovarian Metastasis from Microinvasive Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix. Gynecol Obstet. 2014;4:248. 11. Ngamcherttakul V, Ruengkhachorn I. Ovarian metastasis and other ovarian neoplasms in women with cervical cancer stage IA-IIA. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;9:4525. 12. 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Journal of Ovarian Research – Springer Journals
Published: May 30, 2018
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