Bend manholes of sewers with 45° deflection angles are considered. Previous results are reconsidered by introducing the so-called bend extension. It is demonstrated that the discharge capacity of the 45°- and the 90°-bend manholes is identical if the bend extension, a U-shaped straight downstream portion, is added to the 45° manhole. In addition, the effect of the bend cover is analyzed as a general means to suppress shock waves. Both bend extensions and bend covers may be added to existing structures that convey discharge close to or over the design discharge. The hydraulics of bend manholes are analyzed in detail, including the wave profiles along the inner and the outer bend walls, the complete free surface, the recirculation zone, the pressure distributions on the walls and flow in the downstream sewer.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 1, 2002
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