Super-radiance reveals inﬁnite-range dipole
interactions through a nanoﬁber
, F.K. Fatemi
, L.A. Orozco
& S.L. Rolston
Atoms interact with each other through the electromagnetic ﬁeld, creating collective states
that can radiate faster or slower than a single atom, i.e., super- and sub-radiance. When the
ﬁeld is conﬁned to one dimension it enables inﬁnite-range atom–atom interactions. Here we
present the ﬁrst report of inﬁnite-range interactions between macroscopically separated
atomic dipoles mediated by an optical waveguide. We use cold
Rb atoms in the vicinity of a
single-mode optical nanoﬁber (ONF) that coherently exchange evanescently coupled photons
through the ONF mode. In particular, we observe super-radiance of a few atoms separated by
hundreds of resonant wavelengths. The same platform allows us to measure sub-radiance, a
rarely observed effect, presenting a unique tool for quantum optics. This result constitutes
a proof of principle for collective behavior of macroscopically delocalized atomic states, a
crucial element for new proposals in quantum information and many-body physics.
Joint Quantum Institute, Department of Physics and NIST, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Instituto de Investigaciones en
Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México 04510 D.F., Mexico.
Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.S. (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)