Sulfated glycosaminoglycans: their distinct roles in stem cell biology

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans: their distinct roles in stem cell biology Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are a class of long linear polysaccharides that are covalently attached to multiple core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). PGs are major pericellular and extracellular matrix components that surround virtually all mammalian cell surfaces, and create conducive microenvironments for a number of essential cellular events, such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate decisions. The multifunctional properties of PGs are mostly mediated by their respective GAG moieties, including chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) chains. Structural divergence of GAG chains is enzymatically generated and strictly regulated by the corresponding biosynthetic machineries, and is the major driving force for PG functions. Recent studies have revealed indispensable roles of GAG chains in stem cell biology and technology. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GAG chain-mediated stem cell niches, focusing primarily on structural characteristics of GAG chains and their distinct regulatory functions in stem cell maintenance and fate decisions. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Glycoconjugate Journal Springer Journals

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans: their distinct roles in stem cell biology

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Pathology
ISSN
0282-0080
eISSN
1573-4986
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10719-016-9732-9
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are a class of long linear polysaccharides that are covalently attached to multiple core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). PGs are major pericellular and extracellular matrix components that surround virtually all mammalian cell surfaces, and create conducive microenvironments for a number of essential cellular events, such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate decisions. The multifunctional properties of PGs are mostly mediated by their respective GAG moieties, including chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) chains. Structural divergence of GAG chains is enzymatically generated and strictly regulated by the corresponding biosynthetic machineries, and is the major driving force for PG functions. Recent studies have revealed indispensable roles of GAG chains in stem cell biology and technology. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GAG chain-mediated stem cell niches, focusing primarily on structural characteristics of GAG chains and their distinct regulatory functions in stem cell maintenance and fate decisions.

Journal

Glycoconjugate JournalSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 6, 2016

References

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