1063-0740/04/3006- © 2004
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2004, pp. 363–370.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Biologiya Morya, Galysheva.
At present, almost the entire coast of the World
Ocean is subjected to human impact. New areas of the
coastal zone are being developed and already existing
urban zones are expanding. Anthropogenic pressure
and an increasing number of vacationers on the seaside
contribute to the impairment of the coastal marine envi-
ronment. This is particularly true for small bays where
the natural processes fail to cope with pollution.
Changes in the marine environment bring about change
in the biocenoses and their structural alterations.
Impressive examples of anthropogenic impact are
Golden Horn Bay and Diomid Bay, as well as Amursky
Bay and Zaliv Nakhodka Bay, which are part of Peter
the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) [11, 23]. Over several
decades, these bays have been receiving various kinds
of pollution (petroleum products, feces) from the cities
of Vladivostok and Nakhodka, which are large seaports
and have the largest population in the Primorye region.
It has long been believed that Vostok Bay is one of
the cleanest areas of southern Primorye. Every year it
receives only 0.1% of the sewage water discharged into
Peter the Great Bay. This index is 0.6% for Posyet Bay,
11.3 for Zaliv Nakhodka Bay, and 24.6% for Amurski
Bay . Anthropogenic pollution of the coastal area
of Vostok Bay is mainly due to domestic sewage waters
from several settlements (Avangard, Livadia, Volcha-
nets, etc.), sand recovery, and recreation activities.
Anthropogenic pressure on Vostok Bay is minor, and it
only manifests itself in Gaidamak Bay, where there is a
dockyard, an agar factory, and a ﬁsh cannery.
Because the number of vacationers and tourists is
increasing with each year, the environment of Vostok
Bay has begun to cause concern. In the summer
months, natural processes (intensive decay of macro-
phytes, increased river runoff supplying a ﬁnely
grained material into the bay, resuspension of bottom
sediments by storms) combined with the effects of
industrial and domestic sewage waters and recreation
activity result in oxygen deﬁciency in the water almost
throughout Vostok Bay. The average value over the bay
in July is not above 6–7 mgO
/liter, while in Gaidamak
and Srednayay bays and in the Volchanka river mouth
the oxygen content decreases below the health standard
/liter). The increased amounts of detergents,
phosphates, and BPK
in the last two localities in sum-
mer is apparently due to a peak in recreation activity
[7, 21, 22]. Increasing anthropogenic pressure pro-
duces a detrimental affect not only on the environment
of Vostok Bay, but also on its biota.
Investigations of the soft and rocky bottom communi-
ties in the subtidal zone of Vostok Bay were initiated in
the early 1970s [18, 19]. The macrophytobenthos of the
bay was described by Makienko  and Gusarova .
In recent years, studies have focused on intertidal com-
munities , the zoobenthos of soft bottoms , and
phytocenoses . A catalogue of the macrobenthos of
Vostok Bay has been compiled from the published and
unpublished data of more than ten authors .
Much attention has been given to Vostok Bay; how-
ever, the subtidal macrobenthos communities have not
been investigated since the 1970s. Over this fairly long
period of time, the structure of benthic communities
may have changed as a result of natural succession pro-
cesses or in response to anthropogenic pressure. The
aim of this research is to examine the present-day state
of the subtidal macrobenthos communities in Vostok
Bay, to evaluate how they have changed over the last
30 years, and to determine, by comparing the hydrobi-
Subtidal Macrobenthos Communities of Vostok Bay
(Sea of Japan) under Conditions of Anthropogenic Impact
Yu. A. Galysheva
Far Eastern State University, Vladivostok, 690600 Russia
Received April 22, 2004
—Quantitative samples of the macrobenthos were collected in May, July, and October–November
from 2000 to 2002 in Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan. The main characteristics of the subtidal macrobenthos commu-
nities are described. The present study shows that the rocky bottom communities of Vostok Bay have changed
little over the past 30 years. Changes have occurred in the structure of soft bottom communities and phyto-
cenoses. Analysis of the macrophytes species composition and the value of the ﬂoristic coefﬁcient suggest a
currently moderate anthropogenic load on Vostok Bay.
communities, macrobenthos, subtidal zone, Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan, anthropogenic impact, ﬂo-