STUDY OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH A SILICON CARBIDE MATRIX
V. I. Kulik,
A. S. Nilov,
A. P. Garshin,
V. V. Savich,
A. A. Dmitrovich,
and D. I. Saroka
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 45 – 56, August, 2012.
Original article submitted May 16, 2012.
Results are provided for an experimental study of carbon fiber silicon carbide composites of different compo
sition, prepared by liquid-phase siliciding technology, with sliding friction in a pair with a counterbody of fric
tion silicon carbide composite materials and sintered powder materials based on iron with various ceramic ad
Keywords: friction materials, composite ceramic materials, silicon carbide matrix, carbon reinforcing fibers,
sintered powder materials, liquid-phase siliciding, tribological properties.
Currently ever increasing specifications are being laid
down for loading braking systems and safety during braking
for brake systems of various transport vehicles [1, 2]. This
situation constantly stimulates research for new types of fric-
tion materials with better operating properties. Among fric-
tion materials of the latest generation, which potentially may
be used in highly loaded systems, a special place is occupied
by ceramic composite materials (CCM) with a silicon car
bide matrix, reinforced with carbon fibers (C
/SiC). Due to
the exceptionally high hardness and abrasion resistance of
silicon carbide, C
/SiC composites are one of the most prom
ising contemporary materials for tribological objects, and
mainly for frictional purposes.
The following advantages may be noted for braking sys
tems based on CCM compared with those based on tradi
tional friction materials, primarily metal and cermet:
– relatively low density, making it possible to reduce
braking system weight by 40 – 60%;
– high wear resistance in various atmospheric condi
tions, and this makes it possible to increase considerably the
amount of braking before repair;
– a capacity to absorb a considerable amount of kinetic
energy during braking by conversion into thermal energy;
– high thermal shock resistance, high operating temper-
ature, i.e., above 1273 K.
Currently there is active consideration of the possibility
of using friction composites with an SiC-matrix in aviation
technology, heavily-loaded high-speed automobiles, motor-
cycles, heavy combat engineering, high-speed railway trans-
port, and lifting devices. However, it is assumed that the
most promising area for application of these materials is their
use in contemporary automobile and motorcycle brake disks
and clutches . Disks exhibit high and stable tribological
properties, and service life, for example for brake disks the
value is estimated at no less than 300 thousand kilometres for
an automobile. Some producers give a guarantee equal to the
operating life of an automobile itself. In addition, use of fric
tion CCM in braking systems of mass produced automobiles
leads to a saving of up to 20% of fuel ; a reduction in
brake shoe weight, and a reduction in hygroscopic effects;
improvement of automobile and motor cycle control, high
economic effect compared with traditional braking systems,
obtained as a result of reducing operating expenditure.
An important problem of extensive use of these unique
materials in braking system components for different trans
port vehicles includes development of economically effec
tive technology for their preparation. Currently the most im
portant operation of the introduction process for these ob
jects of fiber-reinforced CCM is impregnation (compaction)
of a fiber carcass with matrix material, realized using various
solid-, liquid-, and gas-phase methods, and also combination
of them [3, 5].
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 4, November, 2012
1083-4877/12/05304-0259 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGBOUVPO D. F. Ustinov VOENMEKh Baltic State Technical
University, St Petersburg, Russia.
GOUVPO St Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St Peters
OOO Kerakom, St Petersburg, Russia.
GNU Powder Metallurgy Institute, Minsk, Belarus.