STUDY OF THE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
IN THE LININGS OF HORIZONTAL CONVERTERS
USED IN NONFERROUS METALLURGY
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 25 – 28, December, 2012.
Original article submitted October 19, 2012.
A study is made of the temperature distribution in lined horizontal converters used to make nickel and copper.
The temperature distribution is studied for different regimes of converter operation in order to investigate the
thermal conductivity of refractory linings composed of different refractory products. Thermal conductivity is
determined for linings in their initial state and after their impregnation with copper-nickel mattes. The study
results can be used to estimate the temperature of a lining through its cross section and thus calculate the value
of lining thickness at which different mortars used with the lining will begin to sinter. To prevent fracture of
the lining by thermal stresses, it must be heated by burners to keep its temperature from descending below
700 – 800°C (the beginning of solidification of the matte). Otherwise, 40 – 80 mm of the lining material will
Keywords: spalling of refractory products, roasting temperature, matte, thickness of matte-impregnated re-
fractory, physical model, heat-conducting mortars, protective coatings, SHS-mortar.
The lining of the horizontal converters used in nonfer-
rous metallurgy is a complex multilayered body that under-
goes periodic steady and local thermal shock as a result of its
heating and cooling during the conversion operation. These
are integrated pauses during which individual portions of a
matte are processed in reactions that have a net exothermic
effect. Here, FeS is oxidized to FeO and SiO
is fluxed to
form a high-iron fayalite slag that is discharged. Then the
next fresh batch of matte is charged into the converter. These
processes entail stoppage of the converter to cold-charge
fluxing materials and metal wastes.
In addition to the thermal shocks that the entire lining ex
periences, individual parts of the lining are subjected to local
(and fairly substantial) thermal shocks. Foremost among
these parts is the slag belt and the zones of the lining above
and below the tuyeres. The temperatures in these regions are
significantly lower than in the rest of the lining during the
conversion process thanks to the cooling effect of the air that
is sent into the furnace’s working space under a pressure of
3–6at (0.3 – 0.6 MPa). The air is needed to convert iron
sulfide to iron oxide. During the periodic stoppages of the
converter, involving cessation of the air feed and removal of
the melt from the tuyere belt, the parts of the lining just men
tioned undergo rapid heating due to thermal radiation from
the surface of the melt and heat conduction from the other,
hotter parts of the lining. The subsequent restart of the air
feed leads to rapid cooling of the heated tuyere belt (the tem
perature of the process air that is injected is 20°C).
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 6, March, 2013
1083-4877/13/05306-0360 © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Fig. 1. Sketch of the physical model of the converter lining:
1 ) melt; 2 ) the part of the lining that is impregnated with the
slag-matte melt; 3 ) non-impregnated part of the lining; 4 ) filler
composed of powdered magnesia; 5 ) layer of asbestos; 6 ) metal