STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES
OF GRAPHITES FOR REFRACTORY PRODUCTION.
PART 1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GRAPHITES
FROM DIFFERENT DEPOSITS
I. D. Kashcheev,
K. G. Zemlyanoi,
V. M. Ust’yantsev,
and S. A. Pomortsev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 8 – 13, November 2015.
Original article submitted August 14, 2015.
Results are provided for a study of the microstructure, phase composition, and physicochemical properties of
domestic and imported graphites for the refractory industry. It is established that graphites of different origin
have a different morphological surface, crystal lattice structure, and oxidation resistance.
Keywords: refractories, graphite, coherent scattering region (CSR), oxidation resistance.
One of the main trends in the contemporary refractory
market for molded and unmolded materials is an increase in
the role of carbon-containing refractories (from 3 – 5 to
95 – 98 wt.% carbon) [1 – 5]. This is due to a set of unique
carbon properties, i.e., good refractoriness, thermal conduc-
tivity, electrical conductivity, chemical resistance with re
spect to melts based on the majority of metals in both oxi
dized and reduced forms, low LTEC, etc. Carbon in the form
of crystalline graphite and/or commercial-grade carbon, and
also coke residue from organic binders, are within the com
position of a refractory material providing the required
physicochemical and technological properties.
Currently natural and synthetic graphite, commer
cial-grade carbon, and organic binders with the maximum
possible coke residue, are used as carbon-containing materi
als in refractories . Flaky graphite has been used most,
since it is more oxidation resistant . The greatest chemical
resistance towards oxidation is exhibited by natural graphite,
although it has low mechanical strength. Graphite is capable
of reducing iron oxide in slag, increasing viscosity and melt
ing temperature .
The quality of carbon within a refractory charge compo
sition for carbon-containing objects and mixes is determined
by operational problems, but for the least heat loss, and also
for an increase in metal quality it is desirable to use objects
with a low carbon content, i.e., up to 10 wt.%. Since low-car-
bon refractories have reduced thermal shock resistance, a
number of producers introduce natural and/or hybrid graph-
ite carbon black  into a charge composition, thereby com
bining two forms of carbon-containing component, i.e., flaky
graphite with artificial carbon-containing material.
Within the Russian territory there is development of de
posits of crystalline graphite in the Chelyabinsk region. The
annual production of the deposit is about 10 thousand tons of
graphite grades GL, GT, etc. The annual demand by the re
fractory industry for crystalline graphite is about 30 – 40
thousand tons. The shortage of graphite is made up due to
imports. The main world producers of graphite are the PRC,
Brazil, India, North Korea, Canada, and Norway (Table 1).
The main suppliers of graphite into Russia until recently
have been the PRC (77%), and Ukraine (20%); the propor
tion of the rest is 3%. There is a gradual increase in supply of
graphite from other countries.
In this work the physicochemical properties of graphite
used in the Russian refractory industry (Russia and PRC pro
duction) with graphite from other suppliers, i.e., Norway,
Brazil, and Madagascar, have been compared. Comparison
was carried out by studying physicochemical properties of
the graphite itself: ash residue, ash composition, size and de
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 6, March, 2016
1083-4877/16/05606-0577 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGAOU VPO Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
OOO Ogneupor, Magnitogorsk, Russia.