ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 872−880. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Original Russian Text © E.Yu. Shukeilo, V.I. Al’myashev, O.P. Kormilitsyn, G.L. Plotkin, Yu.A. Shukeilo, 2014, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2014,
ol. 87, No. 7, pp. 878−887.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Study of the Structural and Mechanical Properties
of Biotechnical System of Porous Titanium Nikelide–Bone Tissue
E. Yu. Shukeilo
, V. I. Al’myashev
, O. P. Kormilitsyn
, G. L. Plotkin
, and Yu. A. Shukeilo
St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI,” ul. Professora Popova 5, St. Petersburg, 197376 Russia
Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, ul. L’va Tolstogo 6/8, St. Petersburg, 197022 Russia
Received June 24, 2014
Abstract—The stress-strain state of an implant of a porous titanium nickelide was studied in its placement instead of
damaged bone tissue. A value of open porosity of a titanium nickelide sample was determined by the data obtained
in processing of SEM images as well as by the liquid saturation method. The applicability of the technique for
assessing the open porosity according to scanning electron microscopy was demonstrated. The physico-mechanical
parameters of composites of titanium nickelide–connective bone tissue and titanium nickelide–spongy bone tissue
were determined. In a SolidWorks software package a volume model of an implant–bone system was developed,
and calculations of stresses and shears were carried out. It was found that upon bone tissue ingrowth into the
porous structure of TiNi a stress distribution in the composite and bone tissue is leveled.
The study of materials used in traumatology to replace
bone defects is an important task of medical materials
science. These materials should possess mechanical
strength, elasticity, biochemical and biomechanical
compatibility with bone tissue. Hydroxyapatite ceramic
(HAC), titanium and titanium nickelide are the most
Hydroxyapatite ceramics  is a biocompatible mate-
rial and it is used in traumatology, orthopedics, dentistry,
neuro- and maxillofacial surgery to ﬁ ll bone defects.
Chemical compositions of HAC and the mineral compo-
nent of bone tissue are identical, their physico-mechanical
properties are close . However, the strength of HAC is
not sufﬁ cient
for wide clinical application.
Titanium and its alloys are characterized by biocom-
patibility and high mechanical strength, which allows
their use as implants in surgical practice.  However,
the mechanical properties of titanium implants are ac-
ceptable not in all cases.
In the 70ies of XX century in the medical practice the
use of the shape memory implants of titanium nickelide,
intermetallic compounds of nickel and titanium (TiNi),
was started. The material is bioinert, durable, of good cor-
rosion resistance under dynamic loading and of thermo-
mechanical memory . It is produced by sintering or by
self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of a mixture
of powders of nickel and titanium. Currently application
of the shape memory implants in treatment of damaged
bone structures is also relevant. They are used in bone
cancer, in spine surgery and reconstructive surgery .
In this paper a comprehensive study of the product
of titanium nickelide with the open pore structure was
conducted. The pore space of the material is of important
functional signiﬁ cance. In the course of operation the
implant is ﬁ lled
with living body tissues and body ﬂ uids,
which feed these tissues . In the end, a strong com-
posite titanium nickelide–bone tissue is formed, which
retains the superelastic properties characteristic for shape
memory alloys and also for the tissues of the body .
The aim of the study was to investigate the inﬂ uence
of external factors on the state of the implant–bone tis-
sue system while ﬁ lling the pore structure of TiNi with
the bone tissue.