Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 8, pp. 1220−1224.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
Original Russian Text © V.V. Samonin, M.L. Podvyaznikov, V.N. Solov’ev V.L. Kiseleva, E.D. Khrylova, E.A. Spiridonova, 2013, published in Zhurnal
Prikladnoi Khimii, 2013, Vol. 86, No. 8, pp. 1244−1249.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Study of the Possibility of Regeneration of Activated Carbon
Spent in Water Treatment Processes Using the Chemical
Regeneration and Thermal Reactivation
V. V. Samonin, M. L. Podvyaznikov, V. N. Solov’ev, V. L. Kiseleva,
E. D. Khrylova, and E. A. Spiridonova
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical University), St. Petersburg, Russia
Received July 12, 2013
Abstract— Various methods of regeneration of activated carbon, including that obtained after water puriﬁ cation,
were studied. The chemical regeneration with aqueous alkaline solutions and thermal reactivation with steam in
an inert environment were chosen as main methods. It was shown that thermal reactivation is advantageous over
chemical regeneration. The optimal conditions of carbon regeneration evaluated by sorption capacity for Methy-
elene blue and iodine were determined.
Water delivered to users must be treated to drinking water
ality, i.e., it must satisfy to the requirements applicable
to water intended for human consumption, even if just
only its small portion is consumed for drinking .
Water being treated is contaminated, mainly by heavy
metals, pesticides, inorganic salts, microbes, toxicants,
and hydrocarbons (oil and oil reﬁ ning products).
Rude treatment including filtration, precipitation
with coagulants and ﬂ occulants, centrifugation, oxida-
tion, carbonization, and alkalization, is commonly used
to remove suspended and organic substances or reduce
their content, completely remove free carbon dioxide,
and partially remove calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate
ions, and silicic acid from water . As oxidants are used
chlorine, ozone, and potassium permanganate.
Adsorption on activated carbons (AC) is used to most
exhaustively remove organic contaminants. After ﬁ ltering
though a carbon layer, the water contains less than 0.1
of oil reﬁ ning products and surfactants (SAAs),
the concentration of pesticides, phenol, and other aromatic
hydrocarbons in it is far below maximum permissible
concentration (MPC), with removal of viruses also ef-
ﬁ cient .
Industrial water treatment processes use powdered
activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon
(GAC). Regeneration of PAC is practically non-proﬁ t-
able, whereas GAC may be successfully regenerated.
Therefore, water treatment with GAC, though requiring
expensive reagent and ﬁ ltration apparatus, is cheaper .
The most common regeneration techniques employed in
industrial processes is chemical and thermal regeneration
Chemical regeneration consists in treatment of a sor-
bent with chemicals at temperatures commonly below
110°C by desorbing adsorbate without changing the
original structure or products of its interaction with a
regenerating agent . The method is simple and a low
energy process. The most common regenerating agent
used in this method is a 5% sodium hydroxide solution,
recovering up to 75% of the sorption capacity.
Reactivation is a merely complex, multistep process,
involving both the sorbate and the sorbent . The most
common method is reactivation with steam, providing
complete recovery of adsorption capacity.
Active carbon reactivation follows several processes
occurring between the adsorbed substances and steam.