STUDY OF THE MINERAL AND PHASE COMPOSITION
OF ALUMINOSILICATE REFRACTORY ShPD
-45 AFTER SERVICE
IN AN ALUMINUM ELECTROLYZER OF OAO ZAPOROZH’E
V. V. Sharapova,
I. P. Malyshev,
V. D. Troyan,
N. A. Troshenkov,
and T. F. Shapovalova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 45 – 50, March 2009.
Original article submitted July 22, 2008.
Comprehensive studies have established that ShPD
-45 refractory produced by OAO Zaporozhogneupor ex
hibits good anticorrosion properties towards the action of electrolysis bath corrosive extraneous components.
The degree of degradation of ShPD
-45 refractory after two years of service is 10%. The average concentra
tion of entry of Na
-45 refractory through hearth blocks with 50% graphite is correspond
ingly 4.08 ´ 10
and 3.32 ´ 10
g-mole/day. It is established that ShPD
-45 refractory is a more reliable bar-
rier material than unmolded aluminosilicate mixes. The penetration rate of corrosive components of the elec-
trolysis bath into unmolded aluminosilicate materials is greater by a factor of 10 – 30 than for ShPD
fractory. It is shown that the protective function of titanium-containing components and glass phase in an
electrolyzer lining develops as a result of forming fluoride, subfluoride and oxyfluoride titanium compounds.
Industrial approval of ShPD
-45 refractory under OAO Zaporozhe Aluminum Combine conditions has
shown that it exhibits good operating properties in electrolyzers with hearth blocks with 50% graphite.
Keywords: refractory, corrosive extraneous components, barrier material, titanium-containing phases, hearth
blocks with 50% graphite.
The service life of domestic and Russian electrolyzers is
significantly less than for the leading overseas enterprises.
One of the reasons that affect the service life of an
electrolyzer is the quality of refractory materials for lining
the electrolyzer socle. Refractories available in the domestic
market in service and mechanical properties, operating sta
bility under conditions of a corrosive medium, are surpassed
by materials recommended by overseas firms for use in alu
Participants of the exhibition Aluminii-2007/ALUMICO,
meetings on problems of material quality, repeatedly noted
the importance of quality and a requirement for the com
bined effort of enterprises, producers and users of
refractories in further development directed towards improv
ing the quality and competitive capacity of production. An
important area is the search for and development of refrac
tory materials corresponding to contemporary requirements
for electrolytic production of aluminum.
Operating experience indicates that the most popular bar
rier materials remain aluminosilicate refractories . On the
basis of work given in publications [2 – 5] and according to
the resolution of the Technical Council of the Zaporozhe
Aluminum Combine for replacement of refractory ShA-5,
that exhibits low operating indices, the refractory lining used
was chamotte dense blast-furnace objects grade ShPD
with additions of mullite-corundum chamotte. The character
istics and service properties of objects are provided in arti
cles [6 – 9].
The technical and economic indices of electrolyzer oper
ation with hearth blocks with 50% graphite used in lining a
cathode with ShPD
-45 refractory have improved alongside
other factors. Electric energy consumption for one ton of alu
minum and the average voltage decreased by 4.91 and 1.81%
respectively. The current efficiency increased b 1%. It was of
interest to evaluate the degree of transformation of refractory
-45 after service, and to study its mineral and phase
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 2, 2009
1083-4877/09/5002-0131 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
The authors thank D. V. Pruttskov and D. Yu. Boguslavskii for
help with this work.
GP UkrNIIspetsstal’, Zaporozh’e, Ukraine.
OAO Zaporozhogneupor, Zaporozh’e, Ukraine.