Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 9, pp. 1532−1540.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © Dzh.Yu. Nadzhafov, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 9, pp. 1482−1490.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Study of the Catalytic Dehydrochlorination
Dzh. Yu. Nadzhafov
Azerbaijani State Oil Academy, Baku, Azerbaijan
Received June 8, 2010
Abstract—Catalytic dehydrochlorination of 1,2-dichloropropane in the presence of γ-Al
, CaX, and haydite
was studied. A relationship between the catalytic activity and acidity of the catalysts under study was revealed.
Development of new high-efﬁ ciency techniques for
production of C
hydrocarbons will make it possible
to master manufacture of a wide variety of organic
compounds widely used in pulp-and-paper and medical
industries, in production of vitamins and mixed fodder,
and in chemical industry for manufacture of polymeric
materials, including synthetic caoutchoucs, oil additives,
and antioxidant agents [1–3].
However, industrial production based on allene and
methyl acetylene has not found wide application, which
is primarily due to the lack of economically feasible
industrial methods for obtaining C
existing techniques for production of allene and methyl
acetylene have such inherent disadvantages as low yield
and selectivity with respect to target products, multistage
technology and high process temperature [4, 5]. For
example, the only way to obtain C
present is by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon raw materials.
However, their content in the pyrolysis gas does not
exceed 0.2–2.0%, which hinders their isolation. In
addition, the thus obtained C
approximately equal amounts of allene and methyl
acetylene, which requires special conditions for their
In , data on the activity exhibited in the reaction of
dehydrochlorination of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) by
a number of catalysts, such as industrial aluminosilicate
cracking catalyst AS-37, magnesium oxide, sodium
and calcium forms of type-X zeolites, and aluminum
oxide in optimal conditions for each catalyst, were
reported. It was found that γ-Al
, CaX zeolite, and
haydite are the most selective and active catalysts for
dehydrochlorination of 1,2-dichloropropane .
This communication report results of a comparative
study of the gas-phase dehydrochlorination of
1,2-dichloropropane and intermediate reaction products
in the presence of γ-Al
, CaX zeolite, and haydite and
of the effect of water vapor on process parameters.
As starting raw materials served 1,2-dichloropropane
(94–98% purity) isolated by rectiﬁ cation from
organochlorine waste formed in synthesis of allyl
chloride and propylene chlorohydrin.
The process of catalytic dehydrochlorination of
1,2-dichloropropane and the fundamental aspects of
the course of the reactions involved in a conventional
ﬂ ow-through installation with a 10-cm
were studied. The ﬂ ow-through installation comprised
(Fig. 1) an integral reactor having the form of a quartz
glass tube with a total length exceeding by 15–20 cm the
furnace length. To make lower the temperature gradient
and gradients of the concentrations of the starting raw
materials and reaction products, the ratio between
the reactor and catalyst grain diameters was 12–30.
The reactor tube was equipped with inlet for delivery
of gases and liquid reagents and was connected by