Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 598−603.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © J. Goralski, V.S. Federyaeva, R.F. Vitkovskaya, M. Szinkowska, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 4,
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Study of Properties of Al
Catalysts in Reactions of Tetrachloromethane Hydrogenation
, V. S. Federyaeva
, R. F. Vitkovskaya
, and M. Szinkowska
Lodz Polytechnic University, Lodz, Poland
St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received September 8, 2011
Abstract—Properties of Al
- and TuO
-supported palladium catalysts modiﬁ ed with calcium oxide were stud-
ied. Catalyst samples 2% Pd/CaO–TiO
and 2% Pd/CaO–Al
were examined by the methods of temperature-
programmed reduction in a ﬂ ow of hydrogen, temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and carbon(IV)
oxide, and X-ray diffraction analysis.
A presently promising method for utilization of
halogen-containing organic compounds from industrial
wastes is the heterogeneous-catalytic hydrogenolysis.
The method of thermal combustion is undesirable
because of producing toxic products: chlorine,
nitrogen oxides, phosgene, and dioxins. However,
practical application of the catalytic hydrogenolysis is
hindered by difﬁ culties encountered in development
of sufﬁ ciently active and stable catalysts resistant to
catalytic poisons. Properties of metallic catalysts, and
namely their activity, selectivity, and service life can
be changed by fusion with other metals, introduction
of promoting additives, and variation of supports.
Catalytic systems based on bimetallic alloys Rh–Ir,
Cu–Ru, Co–MO, Pd–Pt, Pd–Al, Pd–Co etc. have been
suggested. As promoting additives to metallic catalysts
serve salts, hydroxides, and oxides of alkali and
alkaline-earth metals. As supports for metallic catalysts
can be used activated carbon, diatomites, aluminum(III)
oxide, chromium(III) oxide, silicon(IV) oxide, iron(III)
oxide, aluminosilicates, calcium carbonate, zeolites,
and barium sulfate .To obtain highly active catalysts
meeting requirements of technological process, it is
necessary not only to search for new catalyst supports,
but also to develop methods for their fabrication,
activation, and modiﬁ cation. Therefore, we synthesized
and studied properties of palladium catalysts on Al
supports modiﬁ ed with calcium oxide.
As supports were chosen titanium(IV) and
aluminum(III) oxides modiﬁ ed with calcium oxide.
Their treatment consisted in that the supports were
saturated with a calcium nitrate solution of a certain
concentration and then the resulting materials were
dried and calcined at a temperature of 500°C for 4 h.
To deposit palladium, the samples were treated with an
aqueous solution of palladium(IV) chloride [2, 3] and
then were dried and the same procedure was repeated
The inﬂ uence exerted by the treatment conditions of
the catalysts on their properties was studied on samples
whose characteristics are listed in Table 1.
The reducibility of catalysts and the temperatures at
which they can be used were examined by the method of
temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) in a ﬂ ow of
hydrogen on the instrument manufactured by Altamira
Instruments (United States). The experiments were
performed in a medium composed of a mixture of gases,