STUDY OF LOCAL (PITTING) WEAR
OF THE PERICLASE-CARBON LINING OF A LADLE
D. V. Ryabyi
and A. A. Kondrukevich
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.1,pp.6–7,January, 2016.
Original article submitted November 11, 2015.
A study is made of local (pitting) wear of the working layer of a periclase-carbon lining in a steel-pouring ladle
used in a ladle-furnace unit without vacuum degassing of the steel that is being treated. The main causes of this
type of wear are evaluated.
Keywords: local (pitting) wear of a lining, steel-pouring ladle, periclase-carbon refractory.
The main goal of the Russian metallurgical industry is to
obtain finished products of the necessary quality at the low-
est possible cost. Thus, it is very important to optimize the
unit expenditures on the refractories which are used to line
high-temperature equipment. In the production of steel, one
of the most important expenditures is for covering the cost of
lining steel-pouring ladles. Roughly 40% of all of the refrac-
tories consumed at metallurgical plants are used for this pur-
pose. Steel-pouring ladles are among the most important
pieces of equipment in steelmaking and are used to receive,
transport, treat, and cast steel. The normal operation of steel-
making shops would be impossible without the use of reli
able steel-pouring ladles, and the reliability of the ladles in
turn depends in large measure on the durability of their
Researchers are turning their attention toward the study
of a new type of lining wear in metallurgical practice — local
(pitting) wear of the periclase-carbon lining of steel-pouring
ladles (Fig. 1) in ladle-furnace units that are employed in
treating common grades of BOF (basic-oxygen-furnace)
steel without vacuum degassing. Such local wear merits spe
cial attention for several reasons:
– its high frequency of occurrence (~23% of all steel-
pouring ladles that have been inspected);
– the inability to predict the regions where the defect
– limits on the life cycle of the ladles (the premature re
moval of a ladle from service without the possibility of its re
turn to service after an intermediate repair);
– the difficulty of visually inspecting the ladles due to
the formation of slag crusts on their surfaces;
– the high probability of accidents (burn-through of the
Studies have identified the region of the ladle where the
probability of local wear is highest. The regions where the
greatest amounts of such wear have occurred are: the region
where the falling stream of metal from furnace comes into
contact with the ladle lining (the lower part of the ladle wall,
from the fifth to the twelfth courses); the regions where the
stiffening ribs are located: courses 10 – 12 (for the lower rib)
and 25 – 27 (for the upper rib).
The character of the local wear can conditionally be di
vided into two types (see Fig. 2). It should be mentioned that
local wear takes place primarily along the joints between the
refractory products (Fig. 3). Compressive stresses are the
main cause of this wear, these stresses being created on the
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 1, May, 2016
1083-4877/16/05701-0004 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk, Ukraine.
Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow, Russia.
Fig. 1. Local (pitting) wear of the periclase-carbon lining of a