Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1422−1424.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
E.A. Lebedeva, I.V. Val’tsifer, S.A. Astaf’eva, V.A. Val’tsifer, V.N. Strel’nikov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010,
Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1317−1319.
Study of Gel Formation by a Water-Containing Composition
Based on a Polyacrylamide Solution and Nitrocellulose
E. A. Lebedeva, I. V. Val’tsifer, S. A. Astaf’eva, V. A. Val’tsifer, and V. N. Strel’nikov
Institute of Engineering Chemistry, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia
Received April 5, 2010
Abstract—The gel formation process in compositions based on an aqueous polyacrylamide solution, wastes of
nitrocellulose production, and a hardening system was studied. Technological conditions of the gel formation
process in the compositions under study providing the absence of the ﬁ lling agent sedimentation and of the system
layering were determined.
The utilization of out-of-date ammunition and also
liquidation of wastage of their production is presently an
actual problem. One of modern solutions of this problem
consists in the application of these materials as active
ﬁ llers of water-containing industrial explosives.
Structure and rheological properties of water-contain-
ing explosives (WCE) depend on the content of aqueous
gel in them, on its viscosity deﬁ ned by the nature and
amount of a bodying agent, on the technology of its
preparation, on the physicochemical properties of ﬁ lling
agents, and on some other factors. Gel-forming agents
are synthetic or natural polymeric compounds swelling
in water, in particular some phytogenic polysaccharides
(guar gum) in various modiﬁ cations, carboxymethyl cel-
lulose salts, polyacrylamide, etc. Aqueous gels prevent
or slow down washout of niter and other water-soluble
salts, and also of nitrocellulose while charging watered
holes, they plasticize WCE, and, in certain cases, make
them adhesive and impart other useful properties to them.
Depending on a WCE preparation mode, requirements
to bodying agents can be various . Kinetics of solu-
tion formation is of a great importance when a bodying
agent as a component of explosives is selected. Thus, the
fabrication of thin ﬂ uid WCE in situ requires a fast gelati-
nization, whereas the process of gelling in gel explosives
made industrially should be more durable.
Reaching of the maximal technical and economic
effectiveness in processing and application of industrial
WCE is possible only when using optimal composi-
tions. The time of 40–60 min is considered sufﬁ cient for
a composition gel formation and its averaging and for
a product molding. Despite of a great number of works
on WCE, regularities of ﬂ uxion of compositions con-
nected with their component composition and process-
ing parameters remain insufﬁ ciently known that makes
difﬁ cult optimization of the compositions and selection
of their processing mode.
The aim of this work was to study the gel formation
process in compositions based on polyacrylamide aque-
ous solutions, wastes of nitrocellulose production, and
a hardening system.
The results of studying rheological properties of water-
containing compositions based on wastes of nitrocellulose
production are presented in the work. “Praestol 2510 N”
polyacryle-amide (PAA) produced by “Ashlend-MSP”
(Perm) close corporation was used as a bodying agent.
The gel formation proceeded as a result of redox reac-
tions in the system potassium bichromate–sodium sul-
ﬁ te. Concentration boundaries of the gel formation, i.e.
minimal concentrations of polyacrylamide and a sewing
together system at which gel is formed, were determined
by a visual method of the solution ﬂ uidity loss under the