Abstract In order to study commercially pure (CP) tita-
nium bone interaction and integration mechanism, titani-
um implant bone interface formed for 1, 3 and 6 months
was examined and analyzed by advanced TOF–SIMS
analysis. The results obtained show: 1) Titanium and
bone tissue integrated closely; 2) The action between CP
titanium and bone tissue is a reactive process; both phys-
ical and chemical integration occur at the titanium–bone
interface; 3) Titanium diffuses into the bone tissue,
though the diffusion density is limited; 4) The diffusion
area of titanium into bone tissue noted during the follow-
up period is up to 100 µm. In this paper the titanium
bone integration mechanism was studied, both at molec-
ular and anatomic level.
Key words Titanium · Implants · Bone · TOF–SIMS
The artificial bone material, CP titanium, has been wide-
ly used in the repair of various human bone defects in
plastic and orthopedic surgery as plates and pins.
The study of the ionic reaction and the diffusion of ti-
tanium into bone tissue is very important in order to de-
termine its properties as a biomaterial. This makes it a
valuable material for medical application. Many re-
searchers have used X-rays, photoelectron spectroscopy,
scanning electron microscope, etc., to examine CP
titanium–bone interface, but the use of the time of
flight–secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) has
not yet been reported. [1,21].
In this study, the impurity element distribution and
osmosis were examined and the titanium bone integra-
tion mechanism studied, using TOF–SIMS both at mo-
lecular and anatomic levels.
Material and methods
Preparation of CP titanium implants
A CP pure titanium rod (Ti 99.80%), measuring 12 mm in length
and 3 mm in diameter was made. The smooth side was cleaned
with acid solution, alkaline solution, and ultrasonic wave succes-
sively, and then washed with distilled water, allowed to dry spon-
taneously, and autoclaved in a small clean bottle, ready for use.
Implantation of titanium into the tibia bone of the rabbit
Nine large healthy New Zealand rabbits, weighing between
2.0–2.5 kg were used.
Procedures of implantation
1. Under 2.5% pentobarbital sodium (1.5 ml/kg) anesthesia, the
areas over the right and left tibia were shaved, scrubbed and
prepared, using 3% Tr iodine and 75% alcohol three times and
2. In the anteromedial aspect of the mid-third of the tibia, a stab
wound measuring 1 cm in length was made and the tibia was
exposed. The periosteum was incised, and a small 3 mm diam-
eter hole was made in the bone. The titanium rod was then im-
planted into the bone marrow.
3. The rabbits were reared for 1–6 months postoperatively. They
were divided into three groups and bone samples were taken in
the first, third, and sixth month after operation.
Preparation of tissue samples
Rabbits were sacrificed by air embolus and the tibiae were imme-
diately taken out. The implant sites were located by X-ray film.
The bones with implants were stored in a mixture of 2% glutaral-
dehyde and paraformaldehyde at a temperature of 4°C for 1 week.
They were then placed in acetone liquid for another week. Follow-
ing this, they were embedded in methyl methacrylic acid and ben-
zoperoxide, and maintained in the incubator at a temperature of
35°C for 1 week. The specimens were then trimmed, using a Leitz
Z. Lijian · C. Ti–Sheng · W. Wei (
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
Ninth People’s Hospital,
Shanghai Second Medical University, 639 Zhi–Zao–Ju Road,
Shanghai 200 011, People’s Republic of China
Analysis and Test Center, Fundan University,
Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Eur J Plast Surg (2000) 23:301–304 © Springer-Verlag 2000
Z. Lijian · C. Ti–Sheng · W. Wei · C. Lei
Study of commercially pure titanium implants bone
Received: 25 February 1998 / Accepted: 19 January 2000